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To minimize the pulse-to-pulse variation, the LCLS FEL must operate at saturation, i.e. 10 orders of magnitude brighter spectral brilliance than 3 rd-generation light sources. At this intensity, ultra-high vacuums and windowless transport are required. Many of the experiments, however, will need to be conducted at a much lower intensity thereby requiring a(More)
A novel nanocomposite dielectric was developed by embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-encapsulated gold (Au) nanoparticles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix. The surface functionalization of Au nanoparticles with PVP facilitates favorable interaction between the particle and polymer phase, enhancing nanoparticle dispersion. To study the(More)
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The recently introduced class of micropole undulators, i.e., undulators with submilli-meter periods, promises a wide variety of useful applications in x-ray science and technology. One of the most important of these could turn out to be the efficient generation of highly coherent soft x rays on economical low-energy storage rings or linacs. Over the last(More)
Recent developments in the field of the self-assembly of nanoscale materials such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheets at liquid/liquid interfaces are reviewed. Self-assembly behavior of both biological and synthetic particles is discussed. For biological nanoparticles, the nanoparticle assembly at fluid interfaces provides a simple route for directing(More)
Structured liquids, whose 3-D morphology can adapt and respond to external stimuli, represent a revolutionary materials platform for next-generation energy technologies, such as batteries, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. Structured liquids can be crafted by the jamming of interfacial assemblies of nanoparticle (NP) surfactants. Due to the interactions(More)
VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) is a high-gain self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL), which achieved saturation at 840 nm within a single-pass 4-m undulator. The experiment was performed at the Accelerator Test Facility at BNL, using a high brightness 70-MeV electron beam. A gain length shorter than 18 cm has been(More)
We have measured the response of WC/C multilayers to x-ray fluxes on the order of 200 MW/cm2 using laser-generated plasmas and found that these multilayers will maintain near peak reflectivity for at least 1 ns but are eventually destroyed. A description of the experiments and data analysis methods is given. Transmission electron micrographs of WC/C(More)
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