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Data on the burden of disease, costs of illness, and cost-effectiveness of vaccines are needed to facilitate the use of available anti-typhoid vaccines in developing countries. This one-year prospective surveillance was carried out in an urban slum community in Delhi, India, to estimate the costs of illness for cases of typhoid fever. Ninety-eight(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of the probiotic VSL#3 in prevention of neonatal sepsis in low birthweight (LBW) infants. DESIGN Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING Community setting in rural India. PARTICIPANTS LBW infants aged 3-7 days. INTERVENTIONS Infants were randomised to receive probiotic (VSL#3, 10 billion(More)
Helicobacter pylori infection has been reported to increase the risk of cholera. This nested case-control study was conducted to determine whether H. pylori infection is associated with occurrence of typhoid fever. Eighty-three case subjects of culture-proven typhoid fever were identified through a 1-year surveillance of subjects aged 0-40 years in an urban(More)
Commensal flora constitutes a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. The increasing variety of β-lactamases and the emergence of Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in community, raise concerns regarding efficacy of β-lactams. It is important to know the exact load of antibiotic resistance in the absence of any antibiotic selection pressure including(More)
Enteric fever is responsible for significant morbidity in South Asia and high prevalence of severe disease is seen in children under two years of age. Effective typhoid vaccines are available, but they cannot be used for children under two years of age and also have some limitations in older age groups. Participants supported development of a Salmonella(More)
BACKGROUND Affordable, feasible and efficacious interventions to reduce neonatal infections and improve neonatal survival are needed. Chlorhexidine, a broad spectrum topical antiseptic agent, is active against aerobic and anaerobic organisms and reduces neonatal bacterial colonisation and may reduce infection. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of(More)
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the connective tissue leading to secondary changes in epithelium. It has multifactorial etiology. This case reports Oral Submucous Fibrosis occurring in a 28 year old male with a history of betel quid chewing. Various treatment modalities are proposed such as nutritional(More)
BACKGROUND Although male circumcision (MC) is recommended as an HIV prevention option, the religious, cultural and biomedical dimensions of its feasibility, acceptability and practice in India have not been explored till date. This study explores beliefs, experiences and understanding of the community and healthcare providers (HCPs) about adult MC as an HIV(More)
BACKGROUND The appearance of pink teeth is a common phenomenon which has been observed after death in certain circumstances on post-mortem examination. Extra fibrinolytic activity of pulp facilitates rapid breakdown of red blood cells and diffusion of hemoglobin and its derivatives to flow into dentine. METHODS AND RESULTS We reviewed various studies on(More)
It has been suggested that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties and may reduce the risk of allergic disease. Fish is a great source of n-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the effect of fish on allergic disease remains controversial. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for(More)