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CONTEXT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, and a polymorphism within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been frequently implicated in its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of the 7-repeat microsatellite in the DRD4 gene on clinical outcome and cortical development in(More)
Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder whose genetic influences remain elusive. We hypothesize that individually rare structural variants contribute to the illness. Microdeletions and microduplications >100 kilobases were identified by microarray comparative genomic hybridization of genomic DNA from 150 individuals with schizophrenia and(More)
Non-psychotic individuals at increased risk for schizophrenia show alterations in fronto-striatal dopamine signaling and cortical gray matter maturation reminiscent of those seen in schizophrenia. It remains unclear however if variations in dopamine signaling influence rates of structural cortical maturation in typically developing individuals, and whether(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess 65 pedigrees ascertained through a Bipolar I (BPI) proband for evidence of linkage, using nonparametric methods in a genome-wide scan and for possible parent of origin effect using several analytical methods. We identified 15 loci with nominally significant evidence for increased allele sharing among affected relative(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, multifactorial disorder with significant genetic contribution. Multiple candidate genes have been studied in ADHD, including the norepinephrine transporter (NET1) and dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1). NET1 is implicated in ADHD because of the efficacy of atomoxetine, a selective noradrenergic reuptake(More)
Schizophrenia likely results from poorly understood genetic and environmental factors. We studied the gene encoding the synaptic protein SHANK3 in 285 controls and 185 schizophrenia patients with unaffected parents. Two de novo mutations (R1117X and R536W) were identified in two families, one being found in three affected brothers, suggesting germline(More)
Postmortem brain studies have shown deficits in the cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenic individuals. Expression studies have shown a decrease in the major GABA-synthesizing enzyme (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA levels in neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenics relative to controls. In the present(More)
Humans have systematic sex differences in brain-related behavior, cognition, and pattern of mental illness risk. Many of these differences emerge during adolescence, a developmental period of intense neurostructural and endocrine change. Here, by creating "movies" of sexually dimorphic brain development using longitudinal in vivo structural neuroimaging, we(More)
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), contains two common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)--Leu607Phe and Ser704Cys--that modulate (i) facets of DISC1 molecular functioning important for cortical development, (ii) fronto-temporal cortical anatomy in adults and (iii) risk for diverse psychiatric phenotypes that often emerge during(More)