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Human filarial parasites cause chronic infection associated with long-term down-regulation of the host's immune response. We show here that CD4+ T cell regulation is the main determinant of parasite survival. In a laboratory model of infection, using Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice, parasites establish for >60 days in the thoracic cavity. During(More)
Human helminth infections are synonymous with impaired immune responsiveness indicating suppression of host immunity. Using a permissive murine model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of inbred mice, we demonstrate rapid recruitment and increased in vivo proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells upon exposure to infective L3 larvae. Within(More)
Both T cells and APC have been strongly implicated in the immune suppression observed during filarial nematode infections, but their relative roles are poorly understood, particularly in regard to timing and locality of action. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of susceptible BALB/c mice, we have studied the progression of filarial immunosuppression(More)
Addition of Ca2+ to post-microsomal fractions of bovine adrenal or liver produced a sedimentable complex of membrane vesicles and cytoplasmic proteins. Proteins with apparent mol. wts. 70 000, 36 000 and 32 500 were solubilized from this complex by Ca2+ chelation. The 36 000 mol. wt. protein (p36) was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum specific for pp36, a(More)
Androgen-mediated growth repression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) cells has been reported in androgen-independent PC-3 cells overexpressing the androgen receptor, and in androgen-independent derivatives of LNCaP cells that develop following prolonged culture in androgen-free media. Using two models of AIPC, PC3/AR cells and LNCaP-OM1 cells,(More)
 Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, a calcium-activated chloride conductance (CACC) could be elicited in HPAF cells by addition of 1 μM ionomycin to the bath solution (66 ± 22 pA/pF;V m + 60 mV) or by addition of 1 μM calcium to the pipette solution (136 ± 17 pA/pF; V m + 60 mV). Both conductances had similar biophysical characteristics, including(More)
Using single-channel recording techniques, we have detected two types of outwardly rectifying chloride channel on epithelial cells cultured from human fetal epididymis. A small-conductance channel (2.8–5.0 pS) was spontaneously active in 29% of cell-attached patches but rapidly disappeared on patch excision. This channel often occurred in clusters and(More)
Using the patch-clamp technique, we have identified a large, outwardly rectifying, Cl−-selective whole-cell current in primary cultures of human vas deferens epithelial cells. Whole-cell currents were time- and voltage-dependent and displayed inactivation following depolarising pulses ≥ 60 mV. Currents were equally permeable to bromide (P Br/PCl = 1.05 ±(More)
The T cell coinhibitory receptor CTLA-4 has been implicated in the down-regulation of T cell function that is a quintessential feature of chronic human filarial infections. In a laboratory model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of susceptible BALB/c mice, we have previously shown that susceptibility is linked both to a CD4+ CD25+ regulatory(More)