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In this paper we assume that time synchronized measurements will be ubiquitously available at all high-voltage substations at very high rates. We examine how this information can be utilized more effectively for real-time operation as well as for subsequent decision making. This new information available in real time is different, both in quality and in(More)
In recent years much of the discussion involving “smart grids” has implicitly involved only the distribution side, notably advanced metering. However, today's electric grids have many challenges involving the rest of the grid— the bulk power system—that can be mitigated by making it more intelligent. An enabling technology for helping the bulk power system(More)
The power grid is not only a network interconnecting generators and loads through a transmission and distribution system, but is overlaid with a communication and control system that enables economic and secure operation. This multilayered infrastructure has evolved over many decades utilizing new technologies as they have appeared. This evolution has been(More)
In this paper, we review the functions and architectures of control centers: their past, present, and likely future. The evolving changes in power system operational needs require a distributed control center that is decentralized, integrated, flexible, and open. Present-day control centers are moving in that direction with varying degrees of success. The(More)
With the increase in the monitoring of operational data at very high rates in high voltage substations and the ability to time synchronize these data with global positioning systems, there is a growing need for transmitting this data for monitoring, operation, protection, and control needs. The sets of data that need to be transferred and the speed at which(More)
The present communication architecture supporting control of the electric power grid makes it difficult to use the wealth of data collected at high rates in substations, retarding their use in new applications for controlling the grid. A flexible, real-time data network would make it possible to use these data for many more control and protection(More)
Index Terms — Smart grid; power engineering education; power engineering curriculum; power engineering resources; power engineering workforce. Abstract — A widely supported effort to modernize the United States power system has led to an engineering initiative variously known as ‘smart grid’, ‘intelligrid’, “gridwise”, “modern grid”, “perfect grid”, “future(More)