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Globally distributed archaea comprising ammonia oxidizers of moderate terrestrial and marine environments are considered the most abundant archaeal organisms on Earth. Based on 16S rRNA phylogeny, initial assignment of these archaea was to the Crenarchaeota. By contrast, features of the first genome sequence from a member of this group suggested that they(More)
Genes of archaea encoding homologues of ammonia monooxygenases have been found on a widespread basis and in large amounts in almost all terrestrial and marine environments, indicating that ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) might play a major role in nitrification on Earth. However, only one pure isolate of this group from a marine environment has so far been(More)
The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. Recent studies have provided support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, but the identity and nature of the putative archaeal ancestor remain a subject of debate. Here we describe the discovery of(More)
The cohort of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota is a diverse, widespread and functionally important group of microorganisms in many ecosystems. However, our understanding of their biology is still very rudimentary in part because all available genome sequences of this phylum are from members of the Nitrosopumilus cluster. Here(More)
Based on phylogenetic analyses and gene distribution patterns of a few complete genomes, a new distinct phylum within the Archaea, the Thaumarchaeota, has recently been proposed. Here we present analyses of six archaeal fosmid sequences derived from a microbial hot spring community in Kamchatka. The phylogenetic analysis of informational components(More)
Archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the microbial biomass on Earth. Like Bacteria they have evolved a variety of energy metabolisms using organic and/or inorganic electron donors and acceptors, and many of them are able to fix carbon from inorganic sources. Archaea thus play crucial roles in the Earth's global geochemical cycles and influence(More)
Rumen methanogens are major sources of anthropogenic methane emissions, and these archaea are targets in strategies aimed at reducing methane emissions. Here we show that the poorly characterised Thermoplasmata archaea in bovine rumen are methylotrophic methanogens and that they are reduced upon dietary supplementation with rapeseed oil in lactating cows.(More)
The origin and cellular complexity of eukaryotes represent a major enigma in biology. Current data support scenarios in which an archaeal host cell and an alphaproteobacterial (mitochondrial) endosymbiont merged together, resulting in the first eukaryotic cell. The host cell is related to Lokiarchaeota, an archaeal phylum with many eukaryotic features. The(More)
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have recently been recognized as a significant component of many microbial communities and represent one of the most abundant prokaryotic groups in the biosphere. However, only few AOA have been successfully cultivated so far and information on the physiology and genomic content remains scarce. We have performed a metagenomic(More)
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are a widespread and abundant component of microbial communities in many different ecosystems. The extent of physiological differences between individual AOA is, however, unknown. Here, we compare the transporter gene complements of six AOA, from four different environments and two major clades, to assess their potential for(More)