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GTPases act as molecular switches to control many cellular processes, including signalling, protein translation and targeting. Switch activity can be regulated by external effector proteins or intrinsic properties, such as dimerization. The recognition and translocation of pre-proteins into chloroplasts [via the TOC/TIC (translocator at the outer envelope(More)
Expression in dendritic cells (DCs) of DC-SIGN, a type II membrane protein with a C-type lectin ectodomain, is thought to play an important role in establishing the initial contact between DCs and resting T cells. DC-SIGN is also a unique type of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) attachment factor and promotes efficient infection in trans of cells that(More)
Transport of precursor proteins across chloroplast membranes involves the GTPases Toc33/34 and Toc159 at the outer chloroplast envelope. The small GTPase Toc33/34 can homodimerize, but the regulation of this interaction has remained elusive. We show that dimerization is independent of nucleotide loading state, based on crystal structures of dimeric Pisum(More)
Chloroplast function depends on the translocation of cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins into the organelle. The recognition and transfer of most precursor proteins across the outer membrane depend on a membrane inserted complex. Two receptor components of this complex, Toc34 and Toc159, are GTPases, which can be phosphorylated by kinases present(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Metabolomics approaches in humans have identified around 40 plasma metabolites associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes, which often coincide with those for obesity. We aimed to separate diabetes-associated from obesity-associated metabolite alterations in plasma and study the impact of metabolically important tissues on(More)
BACKGROUND Casein is considered a slowly digestible protein compared with whey protein, and this may cause differences in hormone responses and the kinetics of delivering amino acids into the circulation. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether postprandial plasma hormone and metabolite responses were different when bovine casein or whey protein was(More)
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