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Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was recently shown to be upregulated in mouse models of insulin resistance and obesity. So far, it is unknown whether NNMT is regulated in human disease. We have explored the hypothesis that white adipose tissue (WAT) NNMT expression and plasma 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) concentration are increased in human insulin(More)
Underivatized neutral oligosaccharides from human milk were analyzed by nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT-MS) in the negative-ion mode. Under these conditions neutral oligosaccharides are observed as deprotonated molecules [M-H]- with high intensity. CID-experiments of these species with the charge(More)
Complex mixtures of high molecular weight fractions of pooled neutral human milk oligosaccharides (obtained via gel permeation chromatography) have been investigated. The subfractions were each permethylated and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance(More)
Nanoscale electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) overcomes the sensitivity problems found and reported for neutral oligosaccharides in conventional microscale forced-flow ESI. For a series of compounds ranging from trisaccharides to larger polymers with molecular masses up to 6 kDa, sample concentrations of 10(-5) M, i.e., 10 pmol total sample load, yielded(More)
Since long-term hyperexcitability of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord has been suggested to be caused and maintained by changes of protein expression we assessed protein patterns in lumbar spinal cord during a zymosan induced paw inflammation employing two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. 2D PAGE revealed a time-dependent breakdown of scaffolding(More)
Intestinal cholesterol absorption is an important regulator of serum cholesterol levels. Ezetimibe is a specific inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption recently introduced into medical practice; its mechanism of action, however, is still unknown. Ezetimibe neither influences the release of cholesterol from mixed micelles in the gut lumen nor the(More)
Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides from human milk were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS). These experiments require suitable matrices; their selection and particularly their preparation protocols must be optimized. Important criteria are sensitivity, reproducibility, tolerance against impurities and(More)
Pathological pain associated either with peripheral tissue damage and inflammation (inflammatory pain) or peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain) is characterized by persistent pain hypersensitivity. This hypersensitivity is believed to be mediated by sensitization of nociceptors and spinal dorsal horn neurons leading to hyperalgesia and allodynia.(More)
A complex mixture of isomeric neutral oligosaccharides from pooled human milk was analyzed by nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT-MS) in the negative ion mode. Since deprotonated molecules of neutral oligosaccharides follow distinct fragmentation rules, which have been elucidated by using model compounds (see(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes arises from insulin resistance of peripheral tissues followed by dysfunction of β-cells in the pancreas due to metabolic stress. Both depletion and supplementation of neutral amino acids have been discussed as strategies to improve insulin sensitivity. Here we characterise mice lacking the intestinal and renal neutral amino acid(More)