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To estimate the development of prevalence rates for overweight and obesity in children starting school in Germany, data for children’s height and weight out of the compulsory school enrolment examinations (SEE), conducted annually in every German federal state, were available. A former analysis of these data showed a marked increase of prevalence of(More)
BACKGROUND Although many epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring overweight, it is still under debate whether intrauterine tobacco smoke exposure directly affects offspring obesity or if the association is rather due to confounding by lifestyle factors. OBJECTIVES The association of(More)
CONTEXT Congenital leptin deficiency, caused by a very rare mutation in the gene encoding leptin, leads to severe obesity, hyperphagia and impaired satiety. The only systemic treatment is the substitution with metreleptin leading to weight reduction based on hormonal changes. Several studies have also shown alterations in brain function after metreleptin(More)
OBJECTIVE HDL regulates endothelial function via stimulation of nitric oxide production. It is documented that endothelial function is impaired in obese adolescents, and improved by lifestyle interventions (LI). DESIGN AND METHODS HDL function in obese adolescents and the impact of LI or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) was assessed. HDL was(More)
Surveys performed in the past 10 to 15 years show a yet unexplained stabilization or decline in prevalence rates of childhood obesity in developed countries. The projected continuous increase in obesity prevalence throughout future decades seems not to occur at present. Apparently, saturation has been reached, which might be related to societal adjustments.(More)
Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five(More)
CONTEXT Mutations that lead to congenital leptin deficiency cause severe obesity, hyperphagia, and impaired satiety due to malfunctions of peripheral and brain-related mechanisms. DESIGN AND PATIENT In a leptin-deficient adolescent girl, we investigated brain-related changes before and at two time points after leptin therapy (3 d and 6 months). Functional(More)
AIMS The cardiovascular risk factor profile of a child as well as the development of body weight are influenced by genetic and childhood factors. Circulating insulin concentrations reflect the metabolic cardiovascular risk and may trigger weight gain. We aimed at identifying parental and childhood factors which may influence fasting plasma insulin(More)
CONTEXT Congenital leptin deficiency is a very rare cause of severe early-onset obesity. We recently characterized a mutation in the leptin gene (p.D100Y), which was associated with detectable leptin levels and bioinactivity of the hormone. CASE DESCRIPTION We now describe two siblings, a 9-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with severe early-onset(More)