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UNLABELLED Bacterial biofilms are highly structured multicellular communities whose formation involves flagella and an extracellular matrix of adhesins, amyloid fibers, and exopolysaccharides. Flagella are produced by still-dividing rod-shaped Escherichia coli cells during postexponential growth when nutrients become suboptimal. Upon entry into stationary(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (alpha)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that preferentially kills tumor cells with limited cytotoxicity to nonmalignant cells. However, signaling from death receptors requires amplification via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway (type II) in the majority of tumor cells. Thus, TRAIL-induced(More)
B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important functional adaptors that link cell death signals to the activation of Bax and/or Bak. The BH3-only protein Nbk/Bik induces cell death via an entirely Bax-dependent/Bak-independent mechanism. In contrast, cell death induced by the short splice variant of Bcl-x(More)
A long term functional and reliable coupling between neural tissue and implanted microelectrodes is the key issue in acquiring neural electrophysiological signals or therapeutically excite neural tissue. The currently often used rigid micro-electrodes are thought to cause a severe foreign body reaction resulting in a thick glial scar and consequently a poor(More)
In 2011, nearly 4,000 people in Germany were infected by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 with > 22% of patients developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Genome sequencing showed the outbreak strain to be related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), suggesting its high virulence results from EAEC-typical strong adherence and biofilm(More)
Minimizing the foreign body response is seen as one critical research strategy for implants especially when designed for immune-privileged organs like the brain. The context of this work is to improve deep brain stimulating devices used in a consistently growing spectrum of psychomotor and psychiatric diseases mainly in form of stiff electrodes. Based on(More)
In this paper we consider a class of BSDE with drivers of quadratic growth, on a stochastic basis generated by continuous local martingales. We first derive the Markov property of a forward-backward system (FBSDE) if the generating martingale is a strong Markov process. Then we establish the differentiability of a FBSDE with respect to the initial value of(More)
Schizophrenia is characterized by substantial dysfunctions of reward processing, leading to detrimental consequences for decision-making. The neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for the transmission of reward signals and also known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), sixteen medicated(More)
With the increasing relevance of cell-based therapies, there is a demand for cell-labeling techniques for in vitro and in vivo studies. For the reasonable tracking of transplanted stem cells in animal models, the usage of quantum dots (QDs) for sensitive cellular imaging has major advances. QDs could be delivered to the cytoplasm of the cells providing(More)
Searching for two-dimensional (2D) structural similarities is a useful tool to identify new active compounds in drug-discovery programs. However, as 2D similarity measures neglect important structural and functional features, similarity by 2D might be underestimated. In the present study, we used combined 2D and three-dimensional (3D) similarity comparisons(More)