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The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant(More)
Although Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease in humans worldwide, its potential to adapt to the stressful conditions and survive in extra-intestinal environment is still poorly understood. We tested the effect of heat shock (55 degrees C, 3 min) and oxidative stress (3 mM H2O2 for 10 min or prolonged incubation at(More)
BACKGROUND In order to survive in food-processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. RESULTS Phytochemical analysis of thyme(More)
Comprehensive therapeutic use of macrolides in humans and animals is important in the selection of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter isolates. This study shows high co-resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin and tylosin, with contributions from the 23S rRNA gene and drug efflux systems. The CmeABC efflux pump plays an(More)
The aim was to assess the potency of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) phenylalanine-arginine ß-naphthylamide (PAßN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) and the putative natural EPI phenolic (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for the reversal of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative, fragile, spiral bacterium, known worldwide to be a major cause of acute human enteritis. Like many other food-borne bacteria, campylobacters must be able to survive under diverse conditions both inside the host and in the environment. Understanding stress response mechanisms provides information necessary for(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The(More)
Although campylobacters are relatively fragile and sensitive to environmental stresses, Campylobacter jejuni has evolved mechanisms for survival in diverse environments, both inside and outside the host. Their survival properties and pathogenic potential were assessed after subjecting food and clinical C. jejuni isolates to different stress conditions.(More)
Campylobacters have developed a number of mechanisms for responding to environmental conditions, although the different virulence properties of these cells following exposure to stress are still poorly understood. We analyzed in vitro stress responses and the consequent in vivo modulation of Campylobacter jejuni pathogenicity in BALB/c mice, as a result of(More)
BACKGROUND Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux(More)