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In eukaryotes, mitosis is initiated by M phase promoting factor (MPF), composed of B-type cyclins and their partner protein kinase, CDK1. In animal cells, MPF is cytoplasmic in interphase and is translocated into the nucleus after mitosis has begun, after which it associates with the mitotic apparatus until the cyclins are degraded in anaphase. We have used(More)
BACKGROUND At M phase, cyclin B1 is phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic retention sequence (CRS), which is required for nuclear export. During interphase, cyclin B1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm because constitutive nuclear import is counteracted by rapid nuclear export. In M phase, cyclin B moves rapidly into the nucleus coincident with its(More)
Cyclins A and E and their partner cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are key regulators of DNA synthesis and of mitosis. Immunofluorescence studies have shown that both cyclins are nuclear and that a proportion of cyclin A is localized to sites of DNA replication. However, recently, both cyclin A and cyclin E have been implicated as regulators of centrosome(More)
The widespread reorganization of cellular architecture in mitosis is achieved through extensive protein phosphorylation, driven by the coordinated activation of a mitotic kinase network and repression of counteracting phosphatases. Phosphatase activity must subsequently be restored to promote mitotic exit. Although Cdc14 phosphatase drives this reversal in(More)
Progress through mitosis is controlled by the sequential destruction of key regulators including the mitotic cyclins and securin, an inhibitor of anaphase whose destruction is required for sister chromatid separation. Here we have used live cell imaging to determine the exact time when human securin is degraded in mitosis. We show that the timing of securin(More)
We have used time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to study the properties of the Cdc25B and Cdc25C phosphatases that have both been implicated as initiators of mitosis in human cells. To differentiate between the functions of the two proteins, we have microinjected expression constructs encoding Cdc25B or Cdc25C or their GFP-chimeras into synchronized tissue(More)
The gene encoding the di- and tripeptide transport protein (DtpT) of Lactobacillus helveticus (DtpTLH) was cloned with the aid of the inverse PCR technique and used to complement the dipeptide transport-deficient and proline-auxotrophic Escherichia coli E1772. Functional expression of the peptide transporter was shown by the uptake of prolyl-[14C] alanine(More)
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