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Based on molecular data three major clades have been recognized within Bilateria: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Spiralia. Within Spiralia, small-sized and simply organized animals such as flatworms, gastrotrichs, and gnathostomulids have recently been grouped together as Platyzoa. However, the representation of putative platyzoans was low in the respective(More)
About 2800 mitochondrial genomes of Metazoa are present in NCBI RefSeq today, two thirds belonging to vertebrates. Metazoan phylogeny was recently challenged by large scale EST approaches (phylogenomics), stabilizing classical nodes while simultaneously supporting new sister group hypotheses. The use of mitochondrial data in deep phylogeny analyses was(More)
Many animals permanently inhabit the marine interstitium, the space between sand grains [1, 2]. Different evolutionary scenarios may explain the existence of interstitial animals [3, 4]. These scenarios include (1) that the interstitial realm is the ancestral habitat of bilaterians [5, 6], (2) that interstitial taxa evolved from larger ancestors by(More)
BACKGROUND For phylogenetic reconstructions, conflict in signal is a potential problem for tree reconstruction. For instance, molecular data from different cellular components, such as the mitochondrion and nucleus, may be inconsistent with each other. Mammalian studies provide one such case of conflict where mitochondrial data, which display compositional(More)
Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride, Atmos. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Abstract. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) has substantial strato-spheric ozone depletion potential and(More)
Iron species with terminal oxo ligands are implicated as key intermediates in several synthetic and biochemical catalytic cycles. However, there is a dearth of structural information regarding these types of complexes because their instability has precluded isolation under ambient conditions. The isolation and structural characterization of an iron(III)(More)
Gnathostomulida is a taxon of small marine worms, which exclusively inhabit the interstitium. The evolution of Gnathostomulida has been discussed for decades. Originally regarded as primitive animals with affinities to flatworms, the phylogenetic position of Gnathostomulida has been debated. Given the lack of an anus a close relationship to Platyhelminthes(More)
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