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INTRODUCTION Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegenerative disease (PKAN) is a secondary generalized dystonia associated with an accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia and increased motor cortex excitability. A pilot study in three patients with secondary generalized dystonia had reported a reduced frequency of painful axial spasms following(More)
The accurate clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism may be impeded by atypical presentations and confounding comorbidity. The presence of parkinsonism is misdiagnosed in up to a quarter of cases in general practice. Movement disorder specialists misdiagnose parkinsonian syndromes using histopathological findings as the "gold standard" in up to 10% of cases.(More)
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