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The formation and sinking of biogenic particles mediate vertical mass fluxes and drive elemental cycling in the ocean. Whereas marine sciences have focused primarily on particle production by phytoplankton growth, particle formation by the assembly of organic macromolecules has almost been neglected. Here we show, by means of a combined experimental and(More)
We studied the direct effects of CO 2 and related changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on marine planktonic organisms in a mesocosm experiment. In nine outdoor enclosures (ϳ11 m 3 each), the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) in the seawater was modified by an aeration system. The triplicate mesocosm treatments represented low (ϳ190 parts per million by(More)
During SPURT (Spurenstofftransport in der Tropopausenregion, trace gas transport in the tropopause region) we performed measurements of a wide range of trace gases with different lifetimes and sink/source characteristics in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and low-ermost stratosphere (LMS). A large number of in-situ instruments were deployed(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o The present study investigates the combined effect of phosphorous limitation, elevated partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) and temperature on a calcifying strain of Emiliania huxleyi (PML B92/11) by means of a fully controlled continuous culture facility. Two levels of phosphorous limitation were consecutively applied by renewal of(More)
The pelagic ocean harbors one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. It is responsible for approximately half of global primary production, sustains worldwide fisheries, and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Ocean warming caused by anthropogenic climate change is already starting to impact the marine biota, with possible consequences for(More)
We detected a compound previously unreported in the atmosphere, triflu-oromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF 5 CF 3). Measurements of its infrared absorption cross section show SF 5 CF 3 to have a radiative forcing of 0.57 watt per square meter per parts per billion. This is the largest radiative forcing, on a per molecule basis, of any gas found in the(More)
An indoor mesocosm system was set up to study the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton spring succession to winter and spring warming of sea surface temperatures. The experimental temperature regimes consisted of the decadal average of the Kiel Bight, Baltic Sea, and three elevated regimes with 2 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and 6 degrees C temperature(More)