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The branchial epithelium of the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri is densely packed with mitochondria-rich (MR) cells. This species of mudskipper is also able to eliminate ammonia against large inward gradients and to tolerate extremely high environmental ammonia concentrations. To test whether these branchial MR cells are the sites of active ammonia(More)
Teleost fishes, living in fresh water, engage in active ion uptake to maintain ion homeostasis. Current models for NaCl uptake involve Na(+) uptake via an apical amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), energized by an apical vacuolar-type proton pump (V-ATPase) or alternatively by an amiloride-sensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) protein, and(More)
In this paper, we review the structure and function of a unique type of actin-related intercellular adhesion junctions in the testis. Based on their ultrastructure, the junctions are divided into five distinct domains. The currently identified molecular components of each domain are summarized. In addition, the architecture of the mammalian system is(More)
The seminiferous epithelium contains unique actin related cell-cell junctions, termed ectoplasmic specializations (ESs). Turnover of these junctions is fundamental to sperm release and to movement of spermatocytes from basal to adluminal compartments of the epithelium during spermatogenesis. In this study we report several novel observations related to the(More)
The cytoskeleton of terminally differentiated mammalian Sertoli cells is one of the most elaborate of those that have been described for cells in tissues. Actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules have distinct patterns of distribution that change during the cyclic process of spermatogenesis. Each of the three major cytoskeletal elements is(More)
Tubulobulbar complexes may be part of the mechanism by which intercellular adhesion junctions are internalized by Sertoli cells during sperm release. These complexes develop in regions where Sertoli cells are attached to adjacent cells by intercellular adhesion junctions termed ectoplasmic specializations. At sites where Sertoli cells are attached to(More)
White adipose tissue (fat) is the primary organ for energy storage and its regulation has serious implications on human health. Excess fat tissue causes significant morbidity, and adipose tissue dysfunction caused by excessive adipocyte hypertrophy has been proposed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Studies in both humans(More)
We have developed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mice expressing normal (YAC18) and mutant (YAC46 or YAC72) human huntingtin (htt), in a developmental- and tissue-specific manner, that is identical to endogenous htt. YAC72 mice develop selective degeneration of medium spiny projection neurons in the lateral striatum, similar to what is(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a toxic gain of function in the huntingtin (htt) protein. The contribution of wild-type htt function to the pathogenesis of HD is currently uncertain. To assess the role of wild-type htt in HD, we generated YAC128 mice that do not express wild-type htt (YAC128-/-) but express the(More)
In this paper we provide evidence that ectoplasmic specializations are a form of intercellular adhesion junction. Ectoplasmic specializations, found at basal junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells and at sites of adhesion between Sertoli cells and germ cells, consist of actin filament bundles sandwiched between the plasma membrane and a cistern of(More)