Anita S. Liang

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BACKGROUND In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been(More)
U.S. salmonellosis outbreaks have occurred following consumption of tomato and cantaloupe but not lettuce. We report differential contamination among agricultural seedlings by Salmonella enterica via soil. Members of the family Brassicaceae had a higher incidence of outbreak than carrot, lettuce, and tomato. Once they were contaminated, phyllosphere(More)
A survey was initiated to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in the environment in and around Monterey County, CA, a major agriculture region of the United States. Trypticase soy broth enrichment cultures of samples of soil/sediment (n = 617), water (n = 252), wildlife (n = 476), cattle feces (n = 795), and preharvest lettuce and spinach (n =(More)
Incidences of bacterial foodborne illness caused by ingestion of fresh produce are rising. Instead of this being due to incidental contamination, the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica utilizes specific molecular mechanisms to attach to and colonize plants. This work characterizes two S. enterica genes of unknown function: a putative periplasmic protein,(More)
Three enrichment broths commonly used for detection of Salmonella (buffered peptone water [BPW], tryptic soy broth [TSB], and universal preenrichment broth [UPB]) were compared for use in real-time SYBR Green PCR detection of Salmonella introduced into enrichment cultures made from store-bought lettuce and tomatoes. The produce served as a source of normal(More)
Two enrichment methods for Listeria monocytogenes using Immuno Magnetic Separation (IMS) were tested to determine if they selected the same subtypes of isolates. Both methods used a non-selective primary enrichment and one included subculture in Fraser Broth, while the other involved direct plating of IMS beads. Sixty-two naturally contaminated watershed(More)
A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119 water samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella. Animals sampled were frogs (n=331), lizards(More)
Internalin A is an essential virulence gene involved in the uptake of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into host cells. It is intact in clinical strains and often truncated due to Premature Stop Codons (PMSCs) in isolates from processed foods and processing facilities. Less information is known about environmental isolates. We sequenced the(More)
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