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Physiological mechanisms of gastrointestinal absorption of organic solutes among crustaceans remain severely underinvestigated, in spite of the considerable relevance of characterizing the routes of nutrient absorption for both nutritional purposes and formulation of balanced diets in aquaculture. Several lines of evidence attribute a primary absorptive(More)
This review is an update of information recently obtained about the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms used by crustacean organ systems to regulate and detoxify environmental heavy metals. It uses the American lobster, Homarus americanus, and other decapod crustaceans as model organisms whose cellular detoxification processes may be(More)
Epithelial cells of the gut, gills, antennal glands and integument regulate calcium concentrations in crustaceans during the molt cycle. A cellular calcium transport model has been proposed suggesting the presence of calcium pumps, cation antiporters and calcium channels in transporting epithelial membranes that regulate the movements of this cation across(More)
The functional expression of membrane transport proteins that are responsible for exchanging sodium and protons is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Among vertebrates the Na+/H+ antiporter occurs in plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells and non-polarized cells such as red blood cells, muscle cells, and neurons, and in each cell type the transporter(More)
We have previously reported on calcium transport mechanisms in American lobster, Homarus americanus, using (45)Ca(2+) coupled with vesicle preparations of hepatopancreatic endoplasmic reticulum. The active transport of calcium across membranes bordering calcium-sequestering stores such as sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by(More)
Nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs, subfamily of sodium neurotransmitter symporter family SNF, a.k.a. SLC6) represent a set of phylogenetically and functionally related transport proteins, which perform intracellular absorption of neutral, predominantly essential amino acids. Functions of NATs appear to be critical for the development and survival in(More)
Xenopus laevis oocytes were used for expression and characterization of lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas Na(+)-dependent D-glucose transport activity. Poly(A)(+) RNA from the whole hepatopancreatic tissue was injected and transport activity was assayed by alpha-D-[2-(3)H] glucose. Injection of lobster hepatopancreatic poly(A)(+) RNA resulted in a(More)
Molecular biomarkers are emerging as the key indices for the management of patients with significant diseases. Motivated by the systematic effort to define the human genome, the creation of rapid analytic technologies for evaluating nucleic acids and proteins has provided the technological " boom " for the development of molecular biomarkers. Collaboration(More)
Lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas is a complex, heterogeneous tissue composed of four epithelial cell types that individually contribute to the overall functional properties of digestion, absorption, secretion, and detoxification. Previous studies, using purified hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles, have described the properties of an(More)
The crustacean hepatopancreas is an epithelial-lined, multifunctional organ that, among other activities, regulates the flow of calcium into and out of the animal's body throughout the life cycle. Transepithelial calcium flow across this epithelial cell layer occurs by the combination of calcium channels and cation exchangers at the apical pole of the cell(More)