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A formal definition of human standing up and sitting down movements based on sagittal plane goniometric and force plate data from 20 normal subjects is presented. This definition is comparable to the established gait cycle diagram, and consists of defined characteristic events and relative time intervals between them. The characteristic events are selected(More)
After a program of therapeutic electrical stimulation, 3 groups of incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were identified, those in whom an improvement of both voluntary and stimulated muscle force was observed, those with an increase in stimulation response only, and patients in whom no effect of electrical stimulation training could be recorded. As(More)
Recent advances in science have aided research toward the restoration of biped gait in paraplegic patients by means of functional electrical stimulation (FES). In this paper it is shown how FES-restrengthened muscles of paraplegic patients have been used for simple FES-assisted standing. Those experiments subsequently led to biped gait-initializing(More)
Functional movements can be restored after stroke by portable neuroelectric stimulator controlled by the patient. This field of activity is called functional electrical stimulation (FES). A common example of FES is electric stimulation of the peroneal to prevent dropfoot. A more sophisticated multichannel enables stimulation of more than one paralyzed(More)
The electromyographic activities of six muscles of the thigh were recorded, using bipolar surface electrodes, during active extension of the knee by six healthy men. The signal amplitudes were normalized to those recorded during isometric maximum voluntary contractions. Extension of the knee from 90 to 0 degrees (full extension) was performed at the rate of(More)
The joint torques in hip, knee and ankle were measured during the standing-up of a healthy subject. Force plate and stroboscopic photography were used in the experiment. It has been observed that the time courses of particular joint torques depend on the kind of standing-up. On the basis of these results a standing-up procedure for paraplegic patients was(More)
Prolonged immobilization, such as occurs after the spinal cord injury (SCI), results in several physiological problems. It has been demonstrated that the standing posture can ameliorate many of these problems. Standing exercise can be efficiently performed by the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The first application of FES to a paraplegic(More)
The sit-to-stand transfer of paraplegic patients using functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the knee extensors and arm support was analyzed in the study. In a group of 8 completely paralyzed subjects who were trained FES users, kinematic and dynamic parameters were recorded during standing up trials. A contactless optical system was used to assess the(More)
The aim is to study the influence of electrically stimulated calf muscles on the effectiveness of the swinging leg movement. The study is carried out with a group of patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries both under stationary conditions and during crutch-assisted walking. Before stimulation is applied to the ankle plantar flexors, the knee extensors(More)