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Ecological restoration is widely used to reverse the environmental degradation caused by human activities. However, the effectiveness of restoration actions in increasing provision of both biodiversity and ecosystem services has not been evaluated systematically. A meta-analysis of 89 restoration assessments in a wide range of ecosystem types across the(More)
UNLABELLED PREMISE OF THE STUDY Floral traps are among the most sophisticated devices that have evolved in angiosperms in the context of pollination, but the evolution of trap pollination has not yet been studied in a phylogenetic context. We aim to determine the evolutionary history of morphological traits that facilitate trap pollination and to(More)
There is currently much debate about the relative importance of two contrasting mechanisms thought to be involved in regulating plant communities. One of these mechanisms is thought to result from species which possess particular traits, becoming dominant within the community and thus determining the abundance of other species. The second mechanism is(More)
The relationship between flowering time and reproductive success was investigated in the fly-pollinated, monoecious perennial herb Arum maculatum L. (Araceae). This species temporarily traps its principle pollinator, a psychodid midge. Probability of fruit set was analysed in relation to early, peak and late periods of the flowering phenology of four(More)
Large populations of sika deer occur in lowland heath, woodland, and grassland mosaics in southern England. Previous studies have focused on understanding single factors potentially affecting distribution and habitat selection of sika deer rather than considering simultaneously effects of landscape configuration and human disturbance on their distribution(More)
Arne saltmarsh, an RSPB reserve, is situated in Poole Harbour on the English south coast. In recent years, there has been concern about possible changes in the suitability of the site for Redshank (Trigna totanus) due to sika deer (Cervus nippon) grazing. In order to assess these changes, 50 plots were established in three different locations: 20 in grazed(More)
This study investigates the transfer of Cd and Zn from a soil amended with sewage sludge at rates up to 100 t ha(-1) through a multi-trophic system consisting of barley, the aphid Sitobion avenae and the larvae of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnae. Results show marked differences in the transfer of the two metals. Cadmium was freely accumulated in barley(More)
Pollinators have long been known to select for floral traits, but the nature of this relationship has been little investigated in trap pollination systems. We investigated the trapping devices of 15 Arum spp. and compared them with the types of insects trapped. Most species shared a similar general design of trap chamber walls covered in downward-pointing(More)