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Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor that is activated by a diverse range of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites including steroids, bile acids and about 50% of the prescription drugs. In specific cell types (e.g. liver and intestine) it serves as a 'xenosensor' by regulating expression of a network of genes involved in(More)
BACKGROUND Selenocysteine (Sec) is a selenium-containing amino acid that is co-translationally inserted into nascent polypeptides by recoding UGA codons. Selenoproteins occur in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but the selenoprotein content of organisms (selenoproteome) is highly variable and some organisms do not utilize Sec at all. RESULTS We analyzed(More)
Selenium is an essential trace element in many life forms due to its occurrence as a selenocysteine (Sec) residue in selenoproteins. The majority of mammalian selenoproteins, however, have no known function. Herein, we performed extensive sequence similarity searches to define and characterize a new protein family, designated Rdx, that includes mammalian(More)
Mammalian selenoproteins have diverse functions, cellular locations, and evolutionary histories, but all use the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), often present in the enzyme's active site. Only about half of mammalian selenoproteins have been functionally characterized, with most being oxidoreductases. The cellular role of selenoprotein T (SelT),(More)
Dietary selenium is known to protect skin against UV-induced damage and cancer and its topical application improves skin surface parameters in humans, while selenium deficiency compromises protective antioxidant enzymes in skin. Furthermore, skin and hair abnormalities in humans and rodents may be caused by selenium deficiency, which are overcome by dietary(More)
Novel mouse models were developed in which the hepatic selenoprotein population was targeted for removal by disrupting the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA([Ser]Sec) gene (trsp), and selenoprotein expression was then restored by introducing wild type or mutant trsp transgenes. The selenoprotein population was partially replaced in liver with mutant transgenes(More)
BACKGROUND Selenium, a micronutrient whose deficiency in diet causes immune dysfunction and inflammatory disorders, is thought to exert its physiological effects mostly in the form of selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Incorporation of selenium into the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), and subsequently into selenoproteins is mediated by Sec(More)
Selenium is incorporated into proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), which is dependent on its specific tRNA, designated tRNA([Ser]Sec). Targeted removal of the tRNA([Ser]Sec) gene (Trsp) in mouse hepatocytes previously demonstrated the importance of selenoproteins in liver function. Herein, analysis of plasma proteins in this Trsp knockout mouse revealed(More)
Selenoproteins are essential molecules for the mammalian antioxidant network. We previously demonstrated that targeted loss of all selenoproteins in mouse epidermis disrupted skin and hair development, and caused premature death. In the current study, we targeted specific selenoproteins for epidermal deletion to determine whether similar phenotypes(More)
Krüppel-like factor 5 regulates pluripotent stem cell self-renewal, but its role in somatic stem cells is unknown. Here we show that Krüppel-like factor 5-deficient haematopoietic stem cells and progenitors fail to engraft after transplantation. This haematopoietic stem cell and progenitor defect is associated with impaired bone marrow homing and lodging(More)