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In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim(More)
A key climate policy question is how to balance low-cost emission reductions from land-based activities available in the near term with investments to drive technological innovation in energy, industry, and other sectors over the medium to long term. This paper uses a global climate-energy-economy model to investigate the implications of linking Reduced(More)
This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for(More)
The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on(More)
There is a broad consensus that climate change will increase the costs arising from diseases such as malaria and diarrhea and, furthermore, that the largest increases will be in developing countries. One of the problems is the lack of studies measuring these costs systematically and in detail. This paper critically reviews a number of studies about the(More)
In recent years, the role of tourism has become more recognized in the context of the sustainable use of natural resources and the sector's potential contribution to the country's economic growth. The central objective of this paper is threefold: (a) to present a review of how the tourism element was treated in World Bank projects between fiscal years 1992(More)
In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or(More)