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Mycobacteria are unusual in encoding two GroEL paralogs, GroEL1 and GroEL2. GroEL2 is essential--presumably providing the housekeeping chaperone functions--while groEL1 is nonessential, contains the attB site for phage Bxb1 integration, and encodes a putative chaperone with unusual structural features. Inactivation of the Mycobacterium smegmatis groEL1 gene(More)
Successful treatment of human tuberculosis requires 6-9 months' therapy with multiple antibiotics. Incomplete clearance of tubercle bacilli frequently results in disease relapse, presumably as a result of reactivation of persistent drug-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells, although the nature and location of these persisters are not known. In other(More)
Mycobacterial species, like other microbes, spontaneously form multicellular drug-tolerant biofilms when grown in vitro in detergent-free liquid media. The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilms is formed through genetically programmed pathways and is built upon a large abundance of novel extracellular free mycolic acids (FM), although the(More)
Many species of mycobacteria form structured biofilm communities at liquid-air interfaces and on solid surfaces. Full development of Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilms requires addition of supplemental iron above 1 microM ferrous sulphate, although addition of iron is not needed for planktonic growth. Microarray analysis of the M. smegmatis transcriptome(More)
Mycobacteria are shaped by a thick envelope made of an array of uniquely structured lipids and polysaccharides. However, the spatial organization of these molecules remains unclear. Here, we show that exposure to an esterase from Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msmeg_1529), hydrolyzing the ester linkage of trehalose dimycolate in vitro, triggers rapid and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, has an extraordinary ability to survive against environmental stresses including antibiotics. Although stress tolerance of M. tuberculosis is one of the likely contributors to the 6-month long chemotherapy of tuberculosis (1), the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic(More)
The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses two chaperonins, one (Cpn60.1) dispensable and one (Cpn60.2) essential. These proteins have been reported not to form oligomers despite the fact that oligomerization of chaperonins is regarded as essential for their function. We show here that the Cpn60.2 homologue from Mycobacterium smegmatis also fails to(More)
Environmental mycobacteria pose a significant health burden. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections have been traced to water treatment networks, where mycobacterial biofilms are ubiquitous. Filters that remove potential pathogens have significant medical applications. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that an antibacterial silver nanoparticle(More)
Multidrug chemotherapy for 6-9-months is one of the primary treatments in effective control of tuberculosis, although the mechanisms underlying the persistence of its etiological agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, against antibiotics remain unclear. Ever-mounting evidence indicates that the survival of many environmental and pathogenic microbial species(More)
Infections caused by biofilms are abundant and highly persistent, displaying phenotypic resistance to high concentrations of antimicrobials and modulating host immune systems. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, shares these qualities with biofilm infections. To identify genetic determinants of biofilm formation in M. tuberculosis, we(More)