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Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns (observations, data items, or feature vectors) into groups (clusters). The clustering problem has been addressed in many contexts and by researchers in many disciplines; this reflects its broad appeal and usefulness as one of the steps in exploratory data analysis. However, clustering is a difficult(More)
ÐThe primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory(More)
ÐThis paper proposes an unsupervised algorithm for learning a finite mixture model from multivariate data. The adjective ªunsupervisedº is justified by two properties of the algorithm: 1) it is capable of selecting the number of components and 2) unlike the standard expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, it does not require careful initialization. The(More)
We explore the idea of evidence accumulation (EAC) for combining the results of multiple clusterings. First, a clustering ensemble--a set of object partitions, is produced. Given a data set (n objects or patterns in d dimensions), different ways of producing data partitions are: 1) applying different clustering algorithms and 2) applying the same clustering(More)
A critical step in automatic ngerprint matching is to automatically and reliably extract minutiae from the input ngerprint images. However, the performance of a minutiae extraction algorithm relies heavily on the quality of the input ngerprint images. In order to ensure that the performance of an automatic ngerprint identiication/veriication system will be(More)
—A wide variety of systems requires reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user and no one else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings,(More)