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Alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn) misfolding is associated with several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In yeast cells and in neurons alphaSyn accumulation is cytotoxic, but little is known about its normal function or pathobiology. The earliest defect following alphaSyn expression in yeast was a block in endoplasmic(More)
Prion proteins can serve as genetic elements by adopting distinct physical and functional states that are self-perpetuating and heritable. The critical region of one prion protein, Sup35, is initially unstructured in solution and then forms self-seeded amyloid fibers. We examined in vitro the mechanism by which this state is attained and replicated.(More)
Cells respond to stimuli by changes in various processes, including signaling pathways and gene expression. Efforts to identify components of these responses increasingly depend on mRNA profiling and genetic library screens. By comparing the results of these two assays across various stimuli, we found that genetic screens tend to identify response(More)
AAA proteins remodel other proteins to affect a multitude of biological processes. Their power to remodel substrates must lie in their capacity to couple substrate binding to conformational changes via cycles of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, but these relationships have not yet been deciphered for any member. We report that when one AAA protein,(More)
Cellular protein folding is challenged by environmental stress and aging, which lead to aberrant protein conformations and aggregation. One way to antagonize the detrimental consequences of protein misfolding is to reactivate vital proteins from aggregates. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hsp104 facilitates disaggregation and reactivates aggregated(More)
Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique organelles in the endocytic pathway that contain vesicles in their lumen. Sorting and incorporation of material into such vesicles is a critical cellular process that has been intensely studied following discovery of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery just more than a decade ago. In(More)
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hsp104-mediated disaggregation of protein aggregates is essential for thermotolerance and to facilitate the maintenance of prions. In humans, protein aggregation is associated with neuronal death and dysfunction in many neurodegenerative diseases. Mechanisms of aggregation surveillance that regulate protein(More)
Hsp104, a yeast protein-remodeling factor of the AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily, and its homologs in bacteria and plants mediate cell recovery after severe stress by disaggregating denatured proteins through a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy maps and domain fitting of Hsp104(More)
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are molecular chaperones that protect cells from cytotoxic effects of protein misfolding and aggregation. HspB1, an sHsp commonly associated with senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), prevents the toxic effects of Aβ aggregates in vitro. However, the mechanism of this chaperone activity is poorly understood. Here, we(More)