Anika M. S. Hartz

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The ATP-driven drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein, is a critical and selective element of the blood-brain barrier and a primary impediment to pharmacotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Thus, an understanding of how P-glycoprotein function is regulated has the potential to improve CNS therapy. We recently demonstrated rapid (minutes) and(More)
Reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Abeta) from brain partly underlies increased Abeta brain accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanistic basis for this pathology is unknown, but recent evidence suggests a neurovascular component in AD etiology. We show here that the ATP-driven pump, P-glycoprotein, specifically mediates efflux transport of(More)
P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug export pump, is a critical, selective component of the blood-brain barrier responsible for the poor penetration of many therapeutic drugs. In liver, ligand-activated, nuclear receptors are transcriptional regulators of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug export pumps, but only one, the pregnane X receptor (PXR in rodents,(More)
Brain cancer is a devastating disease. Despite extensive research, treatment of brain tumors has been largely ineffective and the diagnosis of brain cancer remains uniformly fatal. Failure of brain cancer treatment may be in part due to limitations in drug delivery, influenced by the ABC drug efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP at the blood-brain and(More)
The ATP-driven drug export pump, P-glycoprotein, is a primary gatekeeper of the blood-brain barrier and a major impediment to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Reducing P-glycoprotein activity dramatically increases penetration of many therapeutic drugs into the CNS. Previous studies in rat showed that brain capillary P-glycoprotein was(More)
Pharmacotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, brain cancer, and neuro-AIDS) is limited by the blood-brain barrier. P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven, drug efflux transporter, is a critical element of that barrier. High level of expression, luminal membrane location, multispecificity, and high transport(More)
Increased expression of drug efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier accompanies epileptic seizures and complicates therapy with antiepileptic drugs. This study is concerned with identifying mechanistic links that connect seizure activity to increased P-glycoprotein expression at the blood-brain barrier. In this regard, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) effects of many therapeutic drugs are blunted because of restricted entry into the brain. The basis for this poor permeability is the brain capillary endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier. This tissue exhibits very low paracellular (tight-junctional) permeability and expresses potent, multispecific, drug(More)
Here, we report that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major constituent of urban air pollution, affect blood-brain barrier function at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Isolated rat brain capillaries exposed to DEPs showed increased expression and transport activity of the key drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (6 h EC(50) was approximately(More)
At the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, selectively limits drug access to the brain parenchyma, impeding pharmacotherapy of a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We previously used confocal imaging to demonstrate in isolated rat brain capillaries that endothelin-1 (ET-1), acting through an ET(B) receptor, NO(More)