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At the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, selectively limits drug access to the brain parenchyma, impeding pharmacotherapy of a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We previously used confocal imaging to demonstrate in isolated rat brain capillaries that endothelin-1 (ET-1), acting through an ET(B) receptor, NO(More)
The ATP-driven drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein, is a critical and selective element of the blood-brain barrier and a primary impediment to pharmacotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Thus, an understanding of how P-glycoprotein function is regulated has the potential to improve CNS therapy. We recently demonstrated rapid (minutes) and(More)
Pharmacotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, brain cancer, and neuro-AIDS) is limited by the blood-brain barrier. P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven, drug efflux transporter, is a critical element of that barrier. High level of expression, luminal membrane location, multispecificity, and high transport(More)
In the present review we provide a summary of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our review is focused on transporters of the ABC A, B, C, D, and G families that have been detected in the cells of the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier including brain capillary endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and(More)
Xenobiotic efflux pumps at the blood-brain barrier are critical modulators of central nervous system pharmacotherapy. We previously found expression of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), in rat brain capillaries, and showed increased expression and transport activity of the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein, in(More)
P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug export pump, is a critical, selective component of the blood-brain barrier responsible for the poor penetration of many therapeutic drugs. In liver, ligand-activated, nuclear receptors are transcriptional regulators of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug export pumps, but only one, the pregnane X receptor (PXR in rodents,(More)
Increased expression of drug efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier accompanies epileptic seizures and complicates therapy with antiepileptic drugs. This study is concerned with identifying mechanistic links that connect seizure activity to increased P-glycoprotein expression at the blood-brain barrier. In this regard, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
Reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Abeta) from brain partly underlies increased Abeta brain accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanistic basis for this pathology is unknown, but recent evidence suggests a neurovascular component in AD etiology. We show here that the ATP-driven pump, P-glycoprotein, specifically mediates efflux transport of(More)
In the epileptic brain, seizure activity induces expression of the blood-brain barrier efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein, thereby limiting brain penetration and therapeutic efficacy of antiepileptic drugs. We recently provided the first evidence that seizures drive P-glycoprotein induction through a pathway that involves glutamate-signaling through the(More)