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A set of biochemical keys which provide fast and presumptive identification for Vibrio spp. is presented. They have been specially designed for environmental isolates, and can be used for strains that are Gram-negative, give a positive oxidase test, grow on TCBS medium and are facultative anaerobes. The keys are constituted by 28 tests and a maximum of 10(More)
A six-step biochemical key is presented for the identification of all recognized Enterococcus spp. The key consists of 12 tests, but no more than 6 are needed for the most complicated identification. The reliability of the key has been evaluated with collection type strains and clinical and environmental isolates. This key has fewer tests than those(More)
Bifidobacteria are one of the most common bacterial types found in the intestines of humans and other animals and may be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. The presence of nine human-related Bifidobacterium species was analyzed in human and animal wastewater samples of different origins by using species-specific primers based on 16S rRNA(More)
The objectives of the present study were to generate knowledge of enterococcal populations in the food chain, by studying the population structure (in measures of abundance and diversity) among enterococci in different geographical regions and in different parts of the food chain, as well as the similarities between different enterococcal populations.(More)
Molecular methods based on nucleic acid recognition and amplification are valuable tools to complement and support water management decisions. At present, these decisions are mostly supported by the principle of end-point monitoring for indicators and a small number of selected measured by traditional methods. Nucleic acid methods show enormous potential(More)
AIMS Scarce knowledge about the distribution of enterococci species in wastewaters limits any statement on their reliability as faecal indicators or the implications of antibiotic resistance transmission by these organisms through the water cycle. Enterococci have been involved in nosocomial infections and the spreading of antibiotic resistance through the(More)
This study reports the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 144 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from urban sewage and animal wastewaters using a Shiga toxin 2 gene variant (stx(2))-specific DNA colony hybridization method. All the strains were classified as E. coli and belonged to 34 different serotypes, some of which(More)
Extraction of viruses and bacteriophages from sludge, soil and treated biowaste requires homogenization, elution, clarification and detoxification-decontamination steps. Seeding these matrixes with bacteriophages does not reproduce what happens in nature. Therefore, naturally occurring matrixes, raw sludge, digested and dewatered sludge and compost,(More)
The presence of bacteriophages encoding Shiga toxin 2 (stx(2) phages) was analysed in 168 strains of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from cattle. Following mitomycin C induction, strains carrying stx(2) phages were screened by plaque blot and hybridization with an stx(2)A-probe. In the stx(2)-phage-carrying strains, the amounts of(More)
Several microbes and chemicals have been considered as potential tracers to identify fecal sources in the environment. However, to date, no one approach has been shown to accurately identify the origins of fecal pollution in aquatic environments. In this multilaboratory study, different microbial and chemical indicators were analyzed in order to distinguish(More)