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The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles(More)
BACKGROUND The association between parental exposure to Agent Orange or dioxin and birth defects is controversial, due to inconsistent findings in the literature. The principal aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of relevant epidemiological studies that examined this association and to assess the heterogeneity among studies. METHODS Relevant(More)
This qualitative study was conducted to explore health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV testing among female sex workers (FSWs) in the cities of Hanoi and Da Nang, Vietnam. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. Results suggest that women's decision to seek STI treatment and(More)
BACKGROUND Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand.(More)
Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and(More)
BACKGROUND Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies(More)
In Vietnam, premature mortality due to AIDS-related conditions is commonly associated with late initiation to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study explores reasons for late ART initiation among people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the perspectives of health care providers and PLHIV. The study was undertaken in six clinics from five provinces in Vietnam.(More)
BACKGROUND With health sector reform in Vietnam moving towards greater pluralism, commune health stations (CHSs) have been subject to growing competition from private health services and increasing numbers of patients bypassing CHSs for higher-level health facilities. This study describes the pattern of reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP)(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between interpregnancy interval and later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN Population-based record linkage study. SETTING New South Wales, Australia, 1994-2011. POPULATION 216 467 women having first and second liveborn singleton infants, excluding those with an existing or pregnancy-related CVD(More)
To facilitate better understanding of the environment and power structures in which sex work in Vietnam takes place, this study examined the sex workers' social and economic lives, their working environment, social relationships and presentation of self in everyday social contacts and interactions. Thirty in-depth interviews and 14 focus groups were(More)