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The incidence, morbidity, and mortality of group B streptococcal disease in the UK and Republic of Ireland are largely unknown. Between Feb 1, 2000, and Feb 28, 2001, we identified cases of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days through surveillance involving paediatricians, microbiologists, and parents. 568 cases were(More)
Since global availability of vaccine and antiviral agents against influenza caused by novel human subtypes is insufficient, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends non-pharmaceutical public health interventions to contain infection, delay spread, and reduce the impact of pandemic disease. Virus transmission characteristics will not be completely(More)
The World Health Organization's recommended pandemic influenza interventions, based on limited data, vary by transmission pattern, pandemic phase, and illness severity and extent. In the pandemic alert period, recommendations include isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts, accompanied by antiviral therapy. During the pandemic period, the focus(More)
1. Inhibitory neuron-pyramidal cell interactions were investigated in slices of rat somatosensory cortex in which excitatory synaptic transmission was blocked with bath-applied glutamate receptor antagonists. Local inhibitory neurons were excited by focal pressure ejections of small (approximately 40 pl) volumes of 1-10 mM acetylcholine. 2. The frequency of(More)
Three country-specific comments and disclaimers from Finland, France and Norway are available in annex 1. Narcolepsy is an underdiagnosed disease of widely unknown etiology. This report summarises the results from two epidemiological studies conducted by the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO) Consortium undertaken in eight(More)
Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups.(More)
In 2009 the second cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project across 27 European Union (EU) member states (MS), Norway and Iceland (n=29) to determine changes in official national seasonal influenza vaccination policies since a survey undertaken in 2008 and to compare the(More)
A better understanding of the severity of H5N1 in humans is needed. Wang et al. (Brevia, 23 March 2012, p. 1463; published online 23 February 2012) overinterpret the results of seroprevalence studies and take too little account of underlying uncertainties. Although the true risk of death from H5N1 infection will likely be lower than the 60% of reported(More)
What Happened? There is general consensus that the only predictable characteristic of influenza viruses and pandemics is their unpredict-ability [1]. Given such uncertainty, reasonable application of the precautionary principle should prevail in the responses. Indeed many of the initial responses to the 2009 pandemic went well. Once isolated, the pandemic(More)
Providing guidance on risk and target groups for seasonal influenza immunisation is difficult for the 2010-11 season since there is no experience with the new influenza A(H1N1) virus in its seasonal form. Arguments exist for offering immunisation to people with chronic illness and older people, and also for other risk and target groups including pregnant(More)