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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by opportunistic infections and by 'opportunistic neoplasms' (for example, Kaposi's sarcoma). Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is epidemiologically associated with AIDS, especially in male homosexuals. A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is(More)
The isolation of clones encoding the human surface protein T4, and the expression of the T4 gene in new cellular environments, have enabled us to examine the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Our studies support a mechanism of AIDS virus infection that initially involves the specific interaction of the AIDS virus with T4 molecules on the(More)
The anti-tumour effects of thalidomide have been associated with its anti-angiogenic properties. Second generation thalidomide analogues are distinct compounds with enhanced therapeutic potential. Although these compounds are beginning to enter trials for the treatment of cancer there is very little information regarding the anti-angiogenic activity of(More)
Thalidomide and its novel T cell costimulatory analogs (immunomodulatory drugs) are currently being assessed in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. However, neither tumor-specific T cell costimulation nor effective antitumor activity has been demonstrated in vivo. In this study, we assessed the ability of an immunomodulatory drug(More)
Twenty-one patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), all of whom were born in the Caribbean and who had migrated to the United Kingdom, are described. All had a progressive spastic paraparesis developing many years after immigration and all 19 tested had antibodies to the human T cell lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV1). The clinical and(More)
OBJECTIVES Immunological abnormalities in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) include an increase in soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, disease specific cardiac autoantibodies, an HLA-DR4 association, and familial aggregation of disease; however, cytokine profiles have not been defined. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were(More)
Specific T cells stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of HIV were no longer detectable with a functional assay, which suggests that HIV has been transferred from APC to the specific activated T cell via an antigen-dependent mechanism to exert its cytopathic effect on activated T cells. In contrast soluble gp120(More)
The cross-species transmission of lentiviruses from African primates to humans has selected viral adaptations which have subsequently facilitated human-to-human transmission. HIV adapts not only by positive selection through mutation but also by recombination of segments of its genome in individuals who become multiply infected. Naturally infected nonhuman(More)
Several chronic infections known to be associated with malignancy have established oncogenic properties. However the existence of chronic inflammatory conditions that do not have an established infective cause and are associated with the development of tumours strongly suggests that the inflammatory process itself provides the prerequisite environment for(More)
The T cell surface molecule CD4 interacts with class II MHC molecules on the surface of target cells as well as with the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Internalization of CD4 molecules is observed after exposure of CD4+ T cells to either phorbol esters or appropriate antigen-bearing target cells. To determine whether HIV entry(More)