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Lethal necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by a paucity of neutrophils at the site of infection. Interleukin (IL)-8, which is important for neutrophil transmigration and activation, can be degraded by S. pyogenes. Blood isolates of S. pyogenes were better able to degrade human IL-8 than throat isolates. Degradation of(More)
OBJECTIVE Stimulated serum C-peptide (sCP) during a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) is the gold standard measure of endogenous insulin secretion, but practical issues limit its use. We assessed urine C-peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) as an alternative. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seventy-two type 1 diabetic patients (age of diagnosis median 14 years(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Classically, type 1 diabetes is thought to proceed to absolute insulin deficiency. Recently developed ultrasensitive assays capable of detecting C-peptide under 5 pmol/l now allow very low levels of C-peptide to be detected in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. It is not known whether this low-level endogenous insulin secretion(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes endogenous insulin secretion falls with time which changes treatment requirements, however direct measurement of endogenous insulin secretion is rarely performed. We aimed to assess the impact of endogenous insulin secretion on postprandial glucose increase and the effectiveness of prandial(More)
OBJECTIVE With rising obesity, it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in young adults. There has been substantial recent progress in identifying the contribution of common genetic variants to T1D and T2D. We aimed to determine whether a score generated from common genetic variants could(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinicians predominantly use clinical features to differentiate type 1 from type 2 diabetes yet there are no evidence-based clinical criteria to aid classification of patients. Misclassification of diabetes is widespread (7-15% of cases), resulting in patients receiving inappropriate treatment. We sought to identify which clinical criteria could(More)
BACKGROUND Differentiating between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is fundamental to ensuring appropriate management of patients, but can be challenging, especially when treating with insulin. The 2010 UK Practical Classification Guidelines for Diabetes were developed to help make the differentiation. AIM To assess diagnostic accuracy of the UK guidelines(More)
AIMS Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to(More)
The authors would like to correct errors in the legend for Figure 2 and in Table 1. The corrections are shown in red font. Fig. 2 The effect of a meal stimulus on serum C-peptide levels in participants with detectable insulin (n =54). (a) Paired fasting and mixed meal results for all patients with detectable C-peptide. Each line represents an individual(More)