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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is characterized by opportunistic infections and by 'opportunistic neoplasms' (for example, Kaposi's sarcoma). Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is epidemiologically associated with AIDS, especially in male homosexuals. A subset of T lymphocytes positive for the CD4 antigen (also termed T4 antigen), is(More)
The isolation of clones encoding the human surface protein T4, and the expression of the T4 gene in new cellular environments, have enabled us to examine the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Our studies support a mechanism of AIDS virus infection that initially involves the specific interaction of the AIDS virus with T4 molecules on the(More)
The anti-tumour effects of thalidomide have been associated with its anti-angiogenic properties. Second generation thalidomide analogues are distinct compounds with enhanced therapeutic potential. Although these compounds are beginning to enter trials for the treatment of cancer there is very little information regarding the anti-angiogenic activity of(More)
Twenty-one patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), all of whom were born in the Caribbean and who had migrated to the United Kingdom, are described. All had a progressive spastic paraparesis developing many years after immigration and all 19 tested had antibodies to the human T cell lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV1). The clinical and(More)
Specific T cells stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of HIV were no longer detectable with a functional assay, which suggests that HIV has been transferred from APC to the specific activated T cell via an antigen-dependent mechanism to exert its cytopathic effect on activated T cells. In contrast soluble gp120(More)
The T cell surface molecule CD4 interacts with class II MHC molecules on the surface of target cells as well as with the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Internalization of CD4 molecules is observed after exposure of CD4+ T cells to either phorbol esters or appropriate antigen-bearing target cells. To determine whether HIV entry(More)
BACKGROUND The combination of the reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) erlotinib with gemcitabine obtained FDA approval for treating patients with pancreatic cancer. However, duration of response is often limited and there is currently no reliable predictive marker. METHODS We determined the sensitivity of a(More)
Several chronic infections known to be associated with malignancy have established oncogenic properties. However the existence of chronic inflammatory conditions that do not have an established infective cause and are associated with the development of tumours strongly suggests that the inflammatory process itself provides the prerequisite environment for(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (LAV, HTLV-III) is aetiologically linked to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and persistent general lymphadenopathy (PGL). Specific radioimmunoassays (RIA), enzyme-linked assays, immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and immunoblotting techniques are being used widely to detect serum antibodies to HTLV-III in infected(More)
The CD4 (or T4) surface antigen of human T lymphocytes is an important part of the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). After binding to the receptor, the HIV may enter the T cell and induce the formation of syncytia. In an attempt to identify the receptor site more closely, monoclonal antibodies (Mab's) to CD4 were tested for their ability(More)