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Evolution of microstructure morphologies and grain orientations of Cu-Cu bonded wafers during bonding and annealing were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The bonded Cu grain structure reaches steady state after post-bonding anneal. An abnormal (220) grain growth was observed during the initial(More)
A novel test structure for contact resistance measurement of bonded copper interconnects in three-dimensional (3-D) integration technology is proposed and fabricated. This test structure requires a simple fabrication process and eliminates the possibility of measurement errors due to misalignment during bonding. Specific contact resistances of bonding(More)
The microstructure morphologies of copper bonded wafers were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Morphologies of non-distinct, zigzag and distinct interfaces in the bonded layer are observed. A strong relationship between the roughness of surfaces and the individual steps in bonding initiation was(More)
Bonded copper interconnects were stressed with current to measure the specific contact resistance. For bonded copper interconnects without a pre-bonding HCl clean, the corresponding specific contact resistance did not change while increasing the stress current. However, for some interconnects with the pre-bonding HCl clean, an abnormal contact resistance(More)
Low-temperature direct Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) oxide to thermal oxide bonding is described. The PECVD oxide is densified at 350 o C and chemical-mechanically polished to obtain reasonably smooth surface for bonding. The PECVD oxide wafer is bonded to the thermal oxide wafer at room temperature after piranha clean that leaves the(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Skin products such as shower gels have a direct impact on skin health and wellness. Although qualitative haptic characterization through explicit, verbal measures in consumer studies are often sufficient for general comparison on consumer perceived skin feel, a quantitative approach is desired to characterize minute changes in skin(More)
The main objective of this research project is to demonstrate functional three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits based on the stacking of silicon active layers. The bulk of the work focuses on process technology development for silicon active layers stacking using low temperature wafer bonding and wafer thinning. Two types of low temperature wafer(More)
Thermal management challenges are becoming a major roadblock to the wide use of high-power LED lighting systems. Incremental improvements in conventional bulk metal heat sinks and thermal interface materials are projected to be insufficient to meet these challenges. Active cooling methods, such as forced air and pumped liquid cooling, may provide better(More)
The electrical behavior of high power, high frequency power devices is dramatically affected by heat generation caused due to interactions between energetic electrons and the lattice. It is critical that these interactions are taken into account when attempting to predict the electrical behavior of these devices. Since the hydrodynamic model follows the(More)
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