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Exogenous retinoic acid (RA) administered during mouse embryogenesis can alter the pattern of the axial skeleton during two developmental periods: an early window (7 to 8.5 days post-coitum; dpc) and a late window (9.5 to 11.5 dpc). Treatment during the early window results in vertebral homeotic transformations (predominantly posteriorizations) concomitant(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is required for diverse developmental programs, including vertebral specification. Both RA receptor disruption and excess RA result in homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton. These effects are believed to occur through altered expression of Hox genes, several of which have been demonstrated to be direct RA targets. Members of the(More)
Dietary deprivation and gene disruption studies clearly demonstrate that biologically active retinoids, such as retinoic acid (RA), are essential for numerous developmental programs. Similar ontogenic processes are also affected by retinoic acid excess, suggesting that the effects of retinoid administration reflect normal retinoid-dependent events. In the(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a failure of the forebrain to bifurcate and is the most common structural malformation of the embryonic brain. Mutations in SHH underlie most familial (17%) cases of HPE; and, consistent with this, Shh is expressed in midline embryonic cells and tissues and their derivatives that are affected in HPE. It has long been recognized(More)
CDP/Cut homeodomain factors are a divergent group of transcriptional repressors that are conserved during metazoan evolution. The cut locus of Drosophila is required for external sensory organ development and dorso-ventral boundary formation in the wing. In vertebrates, two CDP/Cut genes have been identified, Cux1 and Cux2. While Cux1 is widely expressed in(More)
Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions,(More)
Neurogenesis requires the coordination of neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation with cell-cycle regulation. However, the mechanisms coordinating these distinct cellular activities are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that a Cut-like homeodomain transcription factor family member, Cux2 (Cutl2), regulates cell-cycle(More)
Obtaining the diversity of interneuron subtypes in their appropriate numbers requires the orchestrated integration of progenitor proliferation with the regulation of differentiation. Here we demonstrate through loss-of-function studies in mice that the Cut homeodomain transcription factor Cux2 (Cutl2) plays an important role in regulating the formation of(More)
Proper craniofacial development begins during gastrulation and requires the coordinated integration of each germ layer tissue (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) and its derivatives in concert with the precise regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Neural crest cells, which are derived from ectoderm, are a migratory progenitor cell(More)
Signaling pathways and transcription factors are crucial regulators of vertebrate neurogenesis, exerting their function in a spatial and temporal manner. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of embryonic neurogenesis, little is known regarding how different signaling pathways interact to tightly regulate this process(More)