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Cortical development depends on the active integration of cell-autonomous and extrinsic cues, but the coordination of these processes is poorly understood. Here, we show that the apical complex protein Pals1 and Pten have opposing roles in localizing the Igf1R to the apical, ventricular domain of cerebral cortical progenitor cells. We found that the(More)
Metabolic insult results in apoptosis and depletion of mature oligodendrocytes during demyelination. To examine the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during acute demyelination and remyelination in the adult CNS, we exposed transgenic mice that continuously express IGF-1 (IGF-1 tg) to cuprizone intoxication. Demyelination was observed within the(More)
The cation-dependent and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors (CD- and CI-MPRs) bind the phosphomannosyl recognition marker of lysosomal hydrolases, but in mammals the latter also interacts with insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). While IGF signaling is mediated by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R), the type 2 receptor (IGF2R/CI-MPR) serves(More)
The in vivo actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on cerebellum development have been investigated in transgenic (Tg) mice (IGF-II/I Tg mice) in whom an IGF-II promoter-driven IGF-I transgene is highly expressed in cerebellum. Compared to normal littermates, the brains of IGF-II/I Tg mice exhibited overgrowth beginning from the second week of(More)
A patient with a mitotically unstable dic(Y)(p11) chromosome is reported. Physical examination revealed a small penis with severe hypospadia, undescended testes, rudimetary vagina, uterus, left fallopian tube, and no stigmata of Turner syndrome. Longitudinal chromosome studies over a four-year period, including blood, skin, foreskin, and testicular tissue,(More)
We have validated a method for extracting and measuring the tissue content of somatomedin C (Sm-C)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a growth-hormone-dependent, growth-promoting peptide. The Sm-C content of tissue extracts was strongly growth-hormone dependent because most of the tissues studied from hypophysectomized rats contained significantly less(More)
To study the effects and mechanisms of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on brain myelination in vivo, the morphology of myelinated axons and the expression of myelin specific protein genes have been examined in transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress IGF-I and that those ectopically express IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), a protein that inhibits IGF-I(More)
Ubiquitin is a 76-amino acid protein whose sequence is highly conserved throughout evolution from invertebrates to mammals. It is both a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein. In the cytoplasm it is involved in ATP-dependent nonlysosomal proteolysis. In the nucleus, ubiquitin is conjugated to histone 2A and may play a role in regulation of chromatin structure(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. In this study, we examined myelination during postnatal development in IGF-I knock-out (KO) mice by assessing myelin staining, the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), two major myelin-specific(More)
Neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex of mice occurs in the dorsal telencephalon between embryonic day 11 (E11) and E17, during which time the majority of cortical projection neurons and some glia are produced from proliferating neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone. The number of cells produced by this process is governed by several(More)