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Sickle human hemoglobin (Hb) confers a survival advantage to individuals living in endemic areas of malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium infection. As demonstrated hereby, mice expressing sickle Hb do not succumb to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). This protective effect is exerted irrespectively of parasite load, revealing that sickle Hb confers(More)
Low-grade polymicrobial infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture is lethal in heme oxygenase-1-deficient mice (Hmox1(-/-)), but not in wild-type (Hmox1(+/+)) mice. Here we demonstrate that the protective effect of this heme-catabolizing enzyme relies on its ability to prevent tissue damage caused by the circulating free heme released from hemoglobin(More)
Several pathologic conditions are associated with hemolysis, i.e. release of ferrous (Fe(II)) hemoglobin from red blood cells. Oxidation of cell-free hemoglobin produces (Fe(III)) methemoglobin. More extensive oxidation produces (Fe(III)/Fe(IV) O) ferryl hemoglobin. Both cell-free methemoglobin and ferryl hemoglobin are thought to contribute to the(More)
Infection by Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is associated with hemolysis and therefore with release of hemoglobin from RBC. Under inflammatory conditions, cell-free hemoglobin can be oxidized, releasing its heme prosthetic groups and producing deleterious free heme. Here we demonstrate that survival of a Plasmodium-infected host relies strictly(More)
Cerebral malaria claims more than 1 million lives per year. We report that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA upregulated HO-1 expression and activity and did not develop ECM. Deletion of Hmox1 and inhibition of HO activity increased ECM(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1) dampens inflammatory reactions via the catabolism of heme into CO, Fe, and biliverdin. We report that expression of HO-1 dictates the pathologic outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE in Hmox1(-/- )C57BL/6 mice led to enhanced CNS(More)
Severe sepsis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. High mortality rates in sepsis are frequently associated with neutropenia. Despite the central role of neutrophils in innate immunity, the mechanisms causing neutropenia during sepsis remain elusive. Here, we show that neutropenia is caused in part by apoptosis and is sustained by a block of(More)
OBJECTIVE Homeostasis of the hematopoietic compartment is challenged and maintained during conditions of stress by mechanisms that are poorly defined. To understand how the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment influences hematopoiesis, we explored the role of Notch signaling and BM endothelial cells in providing microenvironmental cues to hematopoietic cells(More)
Severe sepsis remains a poorly understood systemic inflammatory condition with high mortality rates and limited therapeutic options in addition to organ support measures. Here we show that the clinically approved group of anthracyclines acts therapeutically at a low dose regimen to confer robust protection against severe sepsis in mice. This salutary effect(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which degrades heme into three products (carbon monoxide, free iron, and biliverdin), plays a protective role in many models of disease via its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative actions. Overexpression of HO-1 has been shown to suppress immune responses and prolong the survival of allografts; however, the(More)