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Entecavir (ETV) exhibits potent antiviral activity in patients chronically infected with wild-type or lamivudine (3TC)-resistant (3TC(r)) hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among the patients treated in phase II ETV clinical trials, two patients for whom previous therapies had failed exhibited virologic breakthrough while on ETV. Isolates from these patients(More)
Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in the past decade. Approved treatments for chronic hepatitis B include 2 formulations of interferon and 4 nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Sustained viral suppression is rarely achieved after withdrawal of a 48-week course of NA therapy, necessitating long, and in many cases,(More)
The genetic variability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) encounters two compounding forces: a high viral copy number produced during active replication and the lack of proofreading activity in the HBV polymerase, resulting in a high mutational rate. A large pool of quasispecies is generated in which the fittest virus, i.e. the virus that replicates best,(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the prevalence and pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals on long-term lamivudine (3TC) therapy. METHODS HBV polymerase/envelope/basal core promoter/pre-core sequences from 81 HIV-HBV co-infected persons who received at least 6 months 3TC were compared to HBV reference sequences.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Adefovir dipivoxil effectively inhibits both hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Resistance to treatment was not observed in 2 recent large placebo-controlled 48-week studies with this drug. The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed(More)
Antiviral drug resistance now poses a major problem for the management of patients with chronic hepatitis B. In theory, resistance may be prevented if a sufficiently potent antiviral drug, or combination of antiviral agents, is used that prevents viral replication and thereby the ongoing selection of hepatitis B virus quasispecies. Emergence of drug(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The purpose of this study was to investigate possible resistance mutations which arose in the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a patient with severe recurrent HBV infection following liver transplantation. The patient's management included antiviral chemotherapy for almost 4 years comprising ganciclovir, foscarnet and(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) is an adenosine nucleotide analogue that has been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It also shows activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with or without lamivudine (LAM)-associated mutations. Development of clinical or virological HBV breakthrough during TDF therapy has not been reported so far. The aim(More)
There are eight genotypes of HBV designated A to H based on greater than 8% nucleotide variation over the entire genome. Hepadnaviruses infecting primates like the chimpanzee, orangutan and gibbon are very similar and can be regarded as genotypes of HBV. The eight genotypes of HBV show a distinct geographical distribution and influence the course of disease(More)
Exacerbation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients undergoing transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of lamivudine to prevent hepatitis due to exacerbation of HBV in HBsAg-positive patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell(More)