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Entecavir (ETV) exhibits potent antiviral activity in patients chronically infected with wild-type or lamivudine (3TC)-resistant (3TC(r)) hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among the patients treated in phase II ETV clinical trials, two patients for whom previous therapies had failed exhibited virologic breakthrough while on ETV. Isolates from these patients(More)
Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in the past decade. Approved treatments for chronic hepatitis B include 2 formulations of interferon and 4 nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Sustained viral suppression is rarely achieved after withdrawal of a 48-week course of NA therapy, necessitating long, and in many cases,(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the prevalence and pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals on long-term lamivudine (3TC) therapy. METHODS HBV polymerase/envelope/basal core promoter/pre-core sequences from 81 HIV-HBV co-infected persons who received at least 6 months 3TC were compared to HBV reference sequences.(More)
Antiviral drug resistance now poses a major problem for the management of patients with chronic hepatitis B. In theory, resistance may be prevented if a sufficiently potent antiviral drug, or combination of antiviral agents, is used that prevents viral replication and thereby the ongoing selection of hepatitis B virus quasispecies. Emergence of drug(More)
The genetic variability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) encounters two compounding forces: a high viral copy number produced during active replication and the lack of proofreading activity in the HBV polymerase, resulting in a high mutational rate. A large pool of quasispecies is generated in which the fittest virus, i.e. the virus that replicates best,(More)
Long-term lamivudine (LMV) treatment of chronic hepatitis B almost inevitably engenders viral resistance. Mutations that result in the replacement of the methionine at position 204 of the deoxynucleoside triphosphate-binding site of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase (rt) by isoleucine, valine, or (rarely) serine (rtM204I/V/S) confer(More)
Most biological systems have developed complex mechanisms to maintain the stability of their genetic information. Exceptions to this include viruses that can undergo rapid and substantial genetic sequence changes and alterations. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has evolved a unique life cycle resulting in the production of enormous viral loads during active(More)
The antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B is limited by the selection of antiviral resistance mutations. Primary resistance to lamivudine occurs at rtM2041/V in the C Domain of the polymerase. Recently, resistance to adefovir has also been described in the D Domain at rtN236T. The treatment of patients with resistant virus without complete suppression(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Adefovir dipivoxil effectively inhibits both hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Resistance to treatment was not observed in 2 recent large placebo-controlled 48-week studies with this drug. The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The purpose of this study was to investigate possible resistance mutations which arose in the polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a patient with severe recurrent HBV infection following liver transplantation. The patient's management included antiviral chemotherapy for almost 4 years comprising ganciclovir, foscarnet and(More)