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Several laboratories have investigated monocarboxylate transport in a variety of cell types. The characterization of the cloned transporter isoforms in a suitable expression system is nevertheless still lacking. H+/monocarboxylate co-transport was therefore investigated in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes by using(More)
Observations on lactate transport in brain cells and cardiac myocytes indicate the presence of a high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter. The rat monocarboxylate transporter isoform MCT2 was analysed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the results were compared with the known characteristics of lactate transport in heart and brain. Monocarboxylate(More)
The role of glutamine and alanine transport in the recycling of neurotransmitter glutamate was investigated in Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slices and prisms, and in cultured neuroblastoma and astrocyte cell lines. The ability of exogenous (2 mm) glutamine to displace 13C label supplied as [3-13C]pyruvate, [2-13C]acetate, l-[3-13C]lactate, or(More)
Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Here we have investigated how the neural glutamine transporter (rATA1/GlnT) works. Rat ATA1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, ion-sensitive microelectrodes and tracer flux(More)
The neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 mediates electroneutral obligatory antiport but at the same time requires Na(+) for its function. To elucidate the mechanism, ASCT2 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transport was analysed by flux studies and two-electrode voltage clamp recordings. Flux studies with (22)NaCl indicated that the uptake of one(More)
The glutamine transporter SN1 has recently been identified as one of the major glutamine transporters in hepatocytes and brain astrocytes. It appears to be the molecular correlate of system N amino acid transport. Two different transport mechanisms have been proposed for this transporter. These are an electroneutral mechanism, in which glutamine uptake is(More)
The cationic amino acid arginine, due to its positive charge, is usually accumulated in the cytosol. Nevertheless, arginine has to be released by a number of cell types, e.g. kidney cells, which supply other organs with this amino acid, or the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier which release arginine into the brain. Arginine release in mammalian(More)
Transport of lactate, pyruvate, and the ketone bodies, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate, is mediated in many mammalian cells by the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. To be accepted as a substrate, a carboxyl group and an unpolar side chain are necessary. Site-directed mutagenesis of the rat MCT1 was used to identify residues which are involved in(More)
Metabolism of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the brain, particularly that of acetate, appears to occur mainly in astrocytes. The differential use has been attributed to transport, but the extent to which transmembrane movement of SCFA is mediated by transporters has not been investigated systematically. Here we tested the possible contribution of(More)