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The finding that the metazoan hypoxic response is regulated by oxygen-dependent posttranslational hydroxylations, which regulate the activity and lifetime of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), has raised the question of whether other hydroxylases are involved in the regulation of gene expression. We reveal that the splicing factor U2 small nuclear(More)
The freshwater cnidarian Hydra was first described in 1702 and has been the object of study for 300 years. Experimental studies of Hydra between 1736 and 1744 culminated in the discovery of asexual reproduction of an animal by budding, the first description of regeneration in an animal, and successful transplantation of tissue between animals. Today, Hydra(More)
Apoptosis is a normal process by which cells die and are eliminated from tissue by phagocytosis [1]. It is involved in regulating cell numbers in adult tissues and in eliminating 'excess' cells during embryogenesis and development. Apoptosis is mediated by activation of caspases, which then cleave a variety of cellular substrates and thereby cause the(More)
BACKGROUND The transcriptional activation function of the p53 tumour suppressor protein is induced by DNA damage and results in growth arrest and/or apoptotic responses. A key component of this response is the dramatic rise in p53 protein concentration resulting from an increase in the protein's stability. Very recently, it has been suggested that(More)
Many of the major pathways that govern early development in higher animals have been identified in cnidarians, including the Wnt, TGFbeta and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. We show here that Notch signaling is also conserved in these early metazoans. We describe the Hydra Notch receptor (HvNotch) and provide evidence for the conservation of the Notch(More)
A number of viral oncogenes target the tumour suppressor protein p53 and inactivate its function. This is an important step in tumourogenesis. The cellular oncogene hdm2 acts through a similar mechanism. It binds the N terminus of p53, thereby interfering with the ability of p53 transcriptionally to activate genes responsible for growth arrest or apoptosis(More)
Programmed cell death occurs in most, if not all life forms. It is used to sculpt tissue during embryogenesis, to remove damaged cells, to protect against pathogen infection and to regulate cell numbers and tissue homeostasis. In animals cell death often occurs by a morphologically and biochemically conserved process called apoptosis. A novel group of(More)
Apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many developmental pathways in multicellular animals. Here, we show that metamorphosis in the basal invertebrate Hydractinia echinata (Cnidaria) depends on the activity of caspases, the central enzymes in apoptosis. Caspases are activated during metamorphosis and this activity can be measured with caspase-3(More)
Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of phosphatidylserine(More)
The oncogene mdm2 and its human homologue hdm2 bind to the tumour suppressor protein p53 and inactivate its function as a transcription factor. This has been implied as a possible mechanism for cancer development in several tumours including human sarcomas. The mdm2-p53 interaction is therefore a much persued target for the development of anti-cancer drugs.(More)