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The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays an important role in transepithelial Na(+) absorption; hence its function is essential for maintaining Na(+) and fluid homeostasis and regulating blood pressure. Insulin is one of the hormones that regulates activity of ENaC. In this study, we investigated the contribution of two related protein kinases, Akt (also(More)
The first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism is the cleavage of the 2,3-double bond of the indole ring of tryptophan. In mammals, this reaction is performed independently by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and the recently discovered indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2). Here we describe(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) each catalyze the first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. We describe the discovery of another enzyme with this activity, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (INDOL1), which is closely related to INDO and is expressed in mice and humans. The corresponding(More)
In this study, we used the yeast carotenogenic producer Pichia pastoris Pp-EBIL strain, which has been metabolically engineered, by heterologously expressing β-carotene-pathway enzymes to produce β-carotene, as a vessel for recombinant astaxanthin expression. For this purpose, we designed new P. pastoris recombinant-strains harboring astaxanthin-encoding(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is a DNA tumour virus that has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer. In non-transformed HPV-infected cells, the HPV E2 protein regulates transcription of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. Malignant transformation is usually accompanied by disruption of the E2 gene and consequent deregulated expression of(More)
Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) mediate the transport of sodium (Na) across epithelia in the kidney, gut, and lungs and are required for blood pressure regulation. They are inhibited by ubiquitin protein ligases, such as Nedd4 and Nedd4-2, which bind to proline-rich motifs (PY motifs) present in the C-termini of ENaC subunits. Loss of inhibition leads to(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is a DNA tumour virus that has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer. The HPV-16 E2 protein binds to four sites that are present upstream of the viral P97 promoter and regulates transcription of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. Here, it is shown that cellular transcription factors bind to two of these E2 sites.(More)
Regulation of amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) is a prerequisite for coordination of electrolyte transport in epithelia. Downregulation of Na(+) conductance occurs when the intracellular Na(+) concentration is increased during reabsorption of electrolytes, known as feedback inhibition. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of(More)
This paper reviews the general characteristics of exo and endopeptidases of microbial origin currently used in the milk industry. It also includes recent patents developed either to potentiate the enzymatic activity or to improve the resulting milk derivatives. The main application of these proteases is in the cheese-making industry. Although this industry(More)
The haemotropic mycoplasmas Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum cause feline infectious anaemia with infection rates in feline populations reflecting widespread subclinical infection. Clinically significant infections are much rarer but can be life-threatening. Current diagnosis is dependent upon visualising organisms in stained(More)