Angeles Almeida

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After inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by nitric oxide, astrocytes maintain energy production by upregulating glycolysis — a response which does not seem to be available to neurons. Here, we show that in astrocytes, after inhibition of respiration by nitric oxide, there is a rapid, cyclic GMP-independent increase in the activity of(More)
Neurons are known to have a lower glycolytic rate than astrocytes and when stressed they are unable to upregulate glycolysis because of low Pfkfb3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase-3) activity. This enzyme generates fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6P2), the most potent activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Pfk1; ref. 4), a master(More)
Following inhibition of mitochondrial respiration neurons die rapidly, whereas astrocytes utilize glycolytically-generated ATP to increase their mitochondrial membrane potential, thus becoming more resistant to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Neurons are unable to increase glycolysis due to the lack of activity of the glycolysis-promoting enzyme(More)
Within the CNS and under normal conditions, nitric oxide (.NO) appears to be an important physiological signalling molecule. Its ability to increase cyclic GMP concentration suggests that .NO is implicated in the regulation of important metabolic pathways in the brain. Under certain circumstances .NO synthesis may be excessive and .NO may become neurotoxic.(More)
It was recently proposed that in Jurkat cells, after inhibition of respiration by NO, glycolytically generated ATP plays a critical role in preventing the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) and thus apoptotic cell death. We have investigated this observation further in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons and astrocytes-cell(More)
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that destabilizes cell cycle proteins, is activated by Cdh1 in post-mitotic neurons, where it regulates axonal growth, synaptic plasticity and survival. The APC/C-Cdh1 substrate, cyclin B1, has been found to accumulate in degenerating brain areas in Alzheimer's disease and stroke. This(More)
A large body of evidence has appeared over the last 6 years suggesting that nitric oxide biosynthesis is a key factor in the pathophysiological response of the brain to hypoxia-ischemia. Whilst studies on the influence of nitric oxide in this phenomenon initially offered conflicting conclusions, the use of better biochemical tools, such as selective(More)
Oxidative damage has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence suggests that the antidiabetic drug metformin prevents oxidative stress-related cellular death in non-neuronal cell lines. In this report, we point to the direct neuroprotective effect of metformin, using the(More)
In order to investigate the potential neuroprotective role played by glucose metabolism during brain oxygen deprivation, the susceptibility of cultured neurones and astrocytes to 1 h of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) or oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was examined. OGD, but not hypoxia, promotes dihydrorhodamine 123 and glutathione oxidation in neurones(More)
Peroxynitrite is thought to be a nitric oxide-derived neurotoxic effector molecule involved in the disruption of key energy-related metabolic targets. To assess the consequences of such interference in cellular glucose metabolism and viability, we studied the possible modulatory role played by peroxynitrite in glucose oxidation in neurons and astrocytes in(More)