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It is widely accepted that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a cytokine produced not only by immune cells but also by glial cells and certain neurons influences brain functions during infectious and inflammatory processes. It is still unclear, however, whether IL-1 production is triggered under nonpathological conditions during activation of a discrete neuronal(More)
We investigate the prevalence and learning impact of different types of off-task behavior in classrooms where students are using intelligent tutoring software. We find that within the classrooms studied, no other type of off-task behavior is associated nearly so strongly with reduced learning as "gaming the system": behavior aimed at obtaining correct(More)
It has been found in recent years that many students who use intelligent tutoring systems game the system, attempting to succeed in the educational environment by exploiting properties of the system rather than by learning the material and trying to use that knowledge to answer correctly. In this paper, we introduce a system which gives a gaming student(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals(More)
Is starvation in anorexia nervosa (AN) or overeating in bulimia nervosa (BN) a form of addiction? Alternatively, why are individuals with BN more vulnerable and individuals with AN protected from substance abuse? Such questions have been generated by recent studies suggesting that there are overlapping neural circuits for foods and drugs of abuse. To(More)
OBJECTIVE A recent study of ill individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) reported microstructural alterations in white matter integrity including lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity. This study was designed to determine whether such alterations exist in long-term recovered AN individuals and to examine potential associations with(More)
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an illness characterized by aversion to ingestion of normally palatable foods. We examined whether there is a primary disturbance of taste processing and experience of pleasure using a sucrose/water task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To avoid confounding effects of illness, 16 women recovered from(More)
OBJECTIVE We compared individuals recovered from anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) to determine characteristics that are shared by or distinguish eating disorder (ED) subtypes. METHOD Sixty women recovered for > or = 1 year from AN or BN were compared with 47 control women (CW). Assessments included the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with anorexia nervosa are known to be ascetic and able to sustain self-denial of food as well as most comforts and pleasures in life. Building on previous findings of altered striatal dopamine binding in anorexia nervosa, the authors sought to assess the response of the anterior ventral striatum to reward and loss in this disorder. (More)
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders with relatively homogenous presentations such as age of onset and gender distribution. In addition, they share symptoms, such as extremes of food consumption, body image distortion, anxiety and obsessions, and ego-syntonic neglect, raises the possibility that these symptoms reflect(More)