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This study aimed to quantify the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A), CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics. We measured activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and(More)
AIMS The established risk factors for severe sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia (SH) include low hemoglobin (Hb)A(1c), advanced age, long duration of diabetes, multimorbidity, and polypharmacy. As the genetically polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP), enzyme CYP2C9 is mainly responsible for the hepatic metabolism of sulfonylureas (SUs), we hypothesized that the(More)
BACKGROUND In inflammation and infection, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities are down-regulated. Information on possible discrepancies in activities of CYP enzymes and drug transporters between HIV-infected patients and healthy people is limited. METHODS We used midazolam, dextromethorphan and digoxin as in vivo phenotyping probes for CYP3A(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a pathogenic mechanism of depression, and genetic polymorphisms in HPA axis genes have been described to influence response to antidepressant drugs. In particular, two polymorphisms in FKBP5, a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, were strongly associated with response to(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we(More)
Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects(More)
AIM The therapeutic efficacy of oral hypoglycaemic drugs varies between individuals, and pharmacogenetic factors contribute to this variability. The Gly972Arg polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been shown to play a role in insulin signal transduction and therapeutic failure to sulphonylurea drugs. METHODS We studied the(More)
For many drugs, pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are known affecting biotransformation and clinical outcome. The clinical importance of these variants depends on allele-frequency and the effect size of the clinical outcome parameters. Further, it depends on the therapeutic range of the drug which is affected, on predictability of drug response as well as on(More)
Sex differences observed in the adverse effects associated with psychotropic drugs have not been reported consistently in the literature. In this review, we discuss the current published data on sex differences observed in the occurrence, symptomatology and reporting of the adverse effects associated with psychotropic drug effects, and discuss their(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacogenetic determinants of skin rash associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor treatment. A total of 109 prospectively sampled cancer patients, receiving the first treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, were genotyped for functional EGFR polymorphisms and tagging variants in genes involved in(More)