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A paradigmatic test of executive control, the n-back task, is known to recruit a widely distributed parietal, frontal, and striatal "executive network," and is thought to require an equally wide array of executive functions. The mapping of functions onto substrates in such a complex task presents a significant challenge to any theoretical framework for(More)
IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and(More)
Glucose is the major energy source for brain tissue. It is now well established that glucose crosses the blood-brain barrier by facilitated diffusion mediated by the erythrocyte-type (GLUT 1) glucose transporter. Northern blot analysis has indicated that brain tissue expresses two different glucose transporters, the erythrocyte-type transporter and the(More)
Although much genetic research has addressed normal variation in intelligence, little is known about the etiology of high cognitive abilities. Using data from 11,000 twin pairs (age range = 6-71 years) from the genetics of high cognitive abilities consortium, we investigated the genetic and environmental etiologies of high general cognitive ability (g).(More)
We use a biologically grounded neural network model to investigate the brain mechanisms underlying individual differences specific to the selection and instantiation of representations that exert cognitive control in task switching. Existing computational models of task switching do not focus on individual differences and so cannot explain why task(More)
Although there is considerable evidence to suggest that hemodynamics play an important role in vascular disease processes, the exact mechanisms are unknown. With this in mind, we have designed a pulsatile perfusion apparatus which reproducibly delivers pulsatile hemodynamics upon freshly excised canine carotid arteries in vitro. Quantifiable simulations(More)
The genetic and environmental trends in IQ development were assessed in 483 same-sex twin pairs in the Colorado longitudinal twin study using maximum-likelihood model-fitting analysis. The twins were assessed periodically from ages 1 to 16. Results show a decreasing influence of shared environment and an increasing influence of heritability across(More)
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