Angela L. Hewitt

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OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of lingual exercise on swallowing recovery poststroke. DESIGN Prospective cohort intervention study, with 4- and 8-week follow-ups. SETTING Dysphagia clinic, tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS Ten stroke patients (n=6, acute: < or =3mo poststroke; n=4, chronic: >3mo poststroke), age 51 to 90 years (mean, 69.7y). (More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of an 8-week progressive lingual resistance exercise program on swallowing in older individuals, the most "at risk" group for dysphagia. DESIGN Prospective cohort intervention study. SETTING Subjects were recruited from the community at large. PARTICIPANTS Ten healthy men and women aged 70 to 89. INTERVENTION Each(More)
The cerebellum has been implicated in processing motor errors required for on-line control of movement and motor learning. The dominant view is that Purkinje cell complex spike discharge signals motor errors. This study investigated whether errors are encoded in the simple spike discharge of Purkinje cells in monkeys trained to manually track a(More)
Encoding of movement kinematics in Purkinje cell simple spike discharge has important implications for hypotheses of cerebellar cortical function. Several outstanding questions remain regarding representation of these kinematic signals. It is uncertain whether kinematic encoding occurs in unpredictable, feedback-dependent tasks or kinematic signals are(More)
The cerebellum is essential in motor learning. At the cellular level, changes occur in both the simple spike and complex spike firing of Purkinje cells. Because simple spike discharge reflects the main output of the cerebellar cortex, changes in simple spike firing likely reflect the contribution of the cerebellum to the adapted behavior. Therefore, we(More)
This review examines the signals encoded in the discharge of cerebellar neurons during voluntary arm and hand movements, assessing the state of our knowledge and the implications for hypotheses of cerebellar function. The evidence for the representation of forces, joint torques, or muscle activity in the discharge of cerebellar neurons is limited,(More)
Historically the cerebellum has been implicated in the control of movement. However, the cerebellum's role in non-motor functions, including cognitive and emotional processes, has also received increasing attention. Starting from the premise that the uniform architecture of the cerebellum underlies a common mode of information processing, this review(More)
The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are(More)
Processing motor errors is essential for online control of goal-directed movements and motor learning. Evidence from psychophysical and imaging studies supports the long-standing view that error processing is central to cerebellar function. The dominant view is that error-related signals are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells. However,(More)