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The gating of ryanodine receptor calcium release channels (RyRs) depends on myoplasmic Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. RyRs from skeletal and cardiac muscle are activated by microm Ca2+ and inhibited by mm Ca2+ and Mg2+. 45Ca2+ release from skeletal SR vesicles suggests two mechanisms for Mg2+-inhibition (Meissner, Darling & Eveleth, 1986, Biochemistry(More)
Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract(More)
We provide novel evidence that the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium binding protein, calsequestrin, inhibits native ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity. Calsequestrin dissociation from junctional face membrane was achieved by increasing luminal (trans) ionic strength from 250 to 500 mM with CsCl or by exposing the luminal side of ryanodine(More)
The plasmalemmal area of striated muscle fibres is greater than the apparent surface area (A = circumference x length) because of variable folds and the invaginations of the caveolae and T-tubules. Freeze-fracture replicas of the surface membrane of sartorius and semitendinosus muscles from Rana pipiens have been used to determine the numbers and(More)
The cysteine-rich secretory proteins (Crisp) are predominantly found in the mammalian male reproductive tract as well as in the venom of reptiles. Crisps are two domain proteins with a structurally similar yet evolutionary diverse N-terminal domain and a characteristic cysteine-rich C-terminal domain, which we refer to as the Crisp domain. We presented the(More)
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially fatal, inherited skeletal muscle disorder in humans and pigs that is caused by abnormal regulation of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). MH in pigs is associated with a single mutation (Arg615Cys) in the SR ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channel. The way in which this mutation leads to(More)
Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of native and isolated ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels from sheep heart and rabbit skeletal muscle was investigated using the lipid bilayer technique. We found that cytoplasmic Ca2+ inhibited cardiac RyRs with an average Km = 15 mM, skeletal RyRs with Km = 0.7 mM and with Hill coefficients of 2 in both isoforms.(More)
The chemical phosphatase butanedione monoxime (BDM) reversibly inhibited twitches and tetanic contractions in bundles of rat soleus fibres in a dose-dependent manner (2-20 mM) but had no effect on the amplitude or time course of action potentials. In addition, BDM reversibly reduced the amplitude of potassium contractures demonstrating a depressant effect(More)
Alternative splicing of ASI residues (Ala(3481)-Gln(3485)) in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is developmentally regulated: the residues are present in adult ASI(+)RyR1, but absent in the juvenile ASI(-)RyR1 which is over-expressed in adult myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Although this splicing switch may influence RyR1 function in developing(More)
Asymmetrical charge movements (Q) were recorded from the voltage-clamped ends of muscle fibres in extensor digitorum longus (e.d.l.) and soleus muscles from rats. Tetracaine (2 mM) was added to solutions to prevent contraction. In both muscles the relationship between Q and membrane potential (V) was S-shaped and could be described by the Boltzmann-type(More)