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Tissue damage causes inflammation, by recruiting leukocytes and activating them to release proinflammatory mediators. We show that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) orchestrates both processes by switching among mutually exclusive redox states. Reduced cysteines make HMGB1 a chemoattractant, whereas a disulfide bond makes it a proinflammatory(More)
The mechanism of neurodegeneration caused by beta-amyloid in Alzheimer disease is controversial. Neuronal toxicity is exerted mostly by various species of soluble beta-amyloid oligomers that differ in their N- and C-terminal domains. However, abundant accumulation of beta-amyloid also occurs in the brains of cognitively normal elderly people, in the absence(More)
We have applied transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to identify changes in the RNA and the protein levels in the mouse cerebellum after chronic treatment with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Among approximately 14,000 transcripts in a mouse cDNA microarray library, we found 11 genes with altered expression. RasGRF1, a neuron-specific Ras guanine(More)
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a second messenger modulating intracellular calcium levels. We have previously described a cADPR-dependent calcium signaling pathway in bovine rod outer segments (ROS), where calcium ions play a pivotal role. ROS ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ADPR-cyclase) was localized in the membrane fraction. In the present work, we examined the(More)
Fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients displayed decreased cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity (P < 0.05). The basal oxygen consumption rate (QO2) and the response to an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation did not differ between AD and control fibroblasts. The QO2 of AD fibroblasts was more susceptible (P < 0.05) to inhibition by azide(More)
Because of its immunomodulatory and anticancer activities, IFN; has been used as an anticancer drug in several clinical studies, unfortunately with modest results. Attempts to increase the response by increasing the dose or by repeated continuous injection often resulted in lower efficacy, likely due to counterregulatory effects. We show here that targeted(More)
Alterations in the balance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) is a highly regulated, ubiquitous kinase involved in the control of protein translation. Here, we show that eEF2K activity negatively regulates(More)
Selenoprotein N (SEPN1) is a broadly expressed resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whose loss-of-function inexplicably leads to human muscle disease. We found that SEPN1 levels parallel those of endoplamic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1), an ER protein thiol oxidase, and that SEPN1's redox activity defends the ER from ERO1-generated(More)
The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells,(More)
Uromodulin is the most abundant protein in the urine. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Uromodulin mainly exerts its function as an extracellular matrix whose assembly depends on a conserved, specific proteolytic cleavage leading to conformational activation of a Zona Pellucida (ZP)(More)