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High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin component that, when leaked out by necrotic cells, triggers inflammation. HMGB1 can also be secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages, and functions as a late mediator of inflammation. Secretion of a nuclear protein requires a tightly controlled relocation program. We show here that in all cells(More)
Messenger RNAs are exported from the nucleus as large ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs). To date, proteins implicated in this process include TAP/Mex67p and RAE1/Gle2p and are distinct from the nuclear transport receptors of the beta-related, Ran-binding protein family. Mex67p is essential for mRNA export in yeast. Its vertebrate homolog TAP has been(More)
The constitutive transport element (CTE) of the type D retroviruses promotes nuclear export of unspliced viral RNAs apparently by recruiting host factor(s) required for export of cellular messenger RNAs. Here, we report the identification of TAP as the cellular factor that specifically binds to wild-type CTE but not to export-deficient CTE mutants.(More)
Vertebrate TAP and its yeast ortholog Mex67p are involved in the export of messenger RNAs from the nucleus. TAP has also been implicated in the export of simian type D viral RNAs bearing the constitutive transport element (CTE). Although TAP directly interacts with CTE-bearing RNAs, the mode of interaction of TAP/Mex67p with cellular mRNAs is different from(More)
Dbp5 is a DEAD-box protein essential for mRNA export from the nucleus in yeast. Here we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding human Dbp5 (hDbp5) which is 46% identical to yDbp5p. Like its yeast homologue, hDbp5 is localized within the cytoplasm and at the nuclear rim. By immunoelectron microscopy, the nuclear envelope-bound fraction of Dbp5 has been(More)
The box C/D snoRNAs function in directing 2'-O-methylation and/or as chaperones in the processing of ribosomal RNA. We show here that Snu13p (15.5 kD in human), a component of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP, is also associated with the box C/D snoRNAs. Indeed, genetic depletion of Snu13p in yeast leads to a major defect in RNA metabolism. The box C/D motif can be(More)
In metazoa, assembly of spliceosomal U snRNPs requires nuclear export of U snRNA precursors. Export depends upon the RNA cap structure, nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), the export receptor CRM1/Xpo1, and RanGTP. These components are however insufficient to support U snRNA export. We identify PHAX (phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export) as the additional(More)
We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of seven distinct proteins present in human [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNPs. These proteins exhibit clear homology to the Sm proteins and are thus denoted LSm (like Sm) proteins. Purified LSm proteins form a heteromer that is stable even in the absence of RNA and exhibits a doughnut shape under the electron(More)
After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its interaction with the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) receptor and cell migration via an unknown mechanism. We show that(More)
CRM1 is an export receptor mediating rapid nuclear exit of proteins and RNAs to the cytoplasm. CRM1 export cargoes include proteins with a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that bind directly to CRM1 in a trimeric complex with RanGTP. Using a quantitative CRM1-NES cargo binding assay, significant differences in affinity for CRM1 among natural NESs(More)