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The box C/D snoRNAs function in directing 2'-O-methylation and/or as chaperones in the processing of ribosomal RNA. We show here that Snu13p (15.5 kD in human), a component of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP, is also associated with the box C/D snoRNAs. Indeed, genetic depletion of Snu13p in yeast leads to a major defect in RNA metabolism. The box C/D motif can be(More)
Messenger RNAs are exported from the nucleus as large ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs). To date, proteins implicated in this process include TAP/Mex67p and RAE1/Gle2p and are distinct from the nuclear transport receptors of the beta-related, Ran-binding protein family. Mex67p is essential for mRNA export in yeast. Its vertebrate homolog TAP has been(More)
In metazoa, assembly of spliceosomal U snRNPs requires nuclear export of U snRNA precursors. Export depends upon the RNA cap structure, nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), the export receptor CRM1/Xpo1, and RanGTP. These components are however insufficient to support U snRNA export. We identify PHAX (phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export) as the additional(More)
Tissue damage causes inflammation, by recruiting leukocytes and activating them to release proinflammatory mediators. We show that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) orchestrates both processes by switching among mutually exclusive redox states. Reduced cysteines make HMGB1 a chemoattractant, whereas a disulfide bond makes it a proinflammatory(More)
CRM1 is an export receptor mediating rapid nuclear exit of proteins and RNAs to the cytoplasm. CRM1 export cargoes include proteins with a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that bind directly to CRM1 in a trimeric complex with RanGTP. Using a quantitative CRM1-NES cargo binding assay, significant differences in affinity for CRM1 among natural NESs(More)
The mechanism of neurodegeneration caused by beta-amyloid in Alzheimer disease is controversial. Neuronal toxicity is exerted mostly by various species of soluble beta-amyloid oligomers that differ in their N- and C-terminal domains. However, abundant accumulation of beta-amyloid also occurs in the brains of cognitively normal elderly people, in the absence(More)
After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its interaction with the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) receptor and cell migration via an unknown mechanism. We show that(More)
The proteasome produces MHC class I-restricted antigenic peptides carrying N-terminal extensions, which are trimmed by other peptidases in the cytosol or within the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, we show that the N-terminal editing of an antigenic peptide with a predicted low TAP affinity can occur in the cytosol. Using proteomics, we identified two(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), like other central nervous system pathologies, causes changes in the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Consequently analysis of the CSF components is important to better understand the pathological processes involved in such diseases. The aim of this work was to identify specific markers of severe TBI. Proteomic(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE; also known as ADAM17) is a proteolytic sheddase that is responsible for the cleavage of several membrane-bound molecules. We report that TACE cleaves neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III in the epidermal growth factor domain, probably inactivating it (as assessed by deficient activation of the(More)