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Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. Here we demonstrate vaccine protection against acquisition of fully heterologous,(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular immune(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as effector cells that kill virus-infected and neoplastic cells, but recent studies have identified a rare mucosal NK- cell subpopulation secreting the TH17 cytokine IL-22. Here, we report identification of 2 distinct lineages of mucosal NK cells characterized as NKG2A(+)NFIL3(+)RORC(-) and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not replicate in primary cells of New World primates. To better understand this restriction, we expressed owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae) CD4 and CXCR4 in the owl monkey kidney cell line, OMK. An HIV-1 variant modified to evade the owl monkey restriction factor TRIM-cyp replicated efficiently in these cells but(More)
Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect African horse sickness virus (AHSV). A single primer pair which amplified a 423-bp fragment of the S8 gene which encodes the NS2 protein of AHSV was identified. Amplification of this fragment from all nine serotypes of AHSV was achieved with these primers. Between 10(1) and 10(2) copies of AHSV genomic(More)
BACKGROUND Although alopecia is a commonly recognized problem affecting many captive Rhesus macaque colonies, there is no consensus as to the underlying etiology or appropriate course of management. METHODS We performed skin biopsies to assess underlying pathology in alopecic Rhesus macaques and performed immunohistochemical and metachromatic staining of(More)
A common viral immune evasion strategy involves mutating viral surface proteins in order to evade host neutralizing antibodies. Such immune evasion tactics have not previously been intentionally applied to the development of novel viral gene delivery vectors that overcome the critical problem of anti-vector immunity. Recombinant, replication-incompetent(More)
A recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccine for HIV-1 has recently failed in a phase 2b efficacy study in humans. Consistent with these results, preclinical studies have demonstrated that rAd5 vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag failed to reduce peak or setpoint viral loads after SIV challenge of rhesus monkeys(More)
Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccines are currently being developed for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. The potential limitations associated with rAd5 vectors, however, have led to the construction of novel rAd vectors derived from rare Ad serotypes. Several rare serotype rAd vectors have already been(More)
The worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents an unprecedented challenge for vaccine development. Antigens derived from natural HIV-1 sequences have elicited only a limited breadth of cellular immune responses in nonhuman primate studies and clinical trials to date. Polyvalent 'mosaic' antigens, in contrast, are designed to optimize cellular immunologic(More)