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It is known that acetylcholine can stimulate activation and promote plasticity in the cerebral cortex, yet it is not known how the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, which release acetylcholine in the cortex, discharge in relation to natural cortical activity and sleep-wake states. By recording basal forebrain units in association with(More)
Neuronal activity and neurotrophins play a central role in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of dendritic arbors. Here, we show that neuronal activity, mediated by electrical stimulation, KCl depolarization, or cholinergic receptor activation, promotes reversible dendrite formation in sympathetic neurons and that this effect is enhanced by NGF.(More)
The basal forebrain has been shown to play an important role in cortical activation of wake and paradoxical sleep (PS), yet has also been posited to play a role in slow wave sleep (SWS). In an effort to determine whether these different roles may be fulfilled by different cell groups, including cholinergic and GABAergic cells, we recorded from 123 units in(More)
The M-current (current through Kv7 channels) is a low-threshold noninactivating potassium current that is suppressed by muscarinic agonists. Recent studies have shown its role in spike burst generation and intrinsic subthreshold theta resonance, both of which are important for memory function. However, little is known about its role in principal cells of(More)
Persistent neuronal activity lasting seconds to minutes has been proposed to allow for the transient storage of memory traces in entorhinal cortex and thus could play a major role in working memory. Nonsynaptic plateau potentials induced by acetylcholine account for persistent firing in many cortical and subcortical structures. The expression of these(More)
During muscarinic modulation, principal neurons from layer V of rat medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) respond to repeated applications of a brief stimulus with a graded change in persistent firing frequency. This pattern of discharge has been proposed to represent an intrinsic mechanism for short-term memory operations. To investigate the implementation of(More)
Delivering multimedia services over IP is expected to represent a significant contribution to final revenues of most telcos and content producers. This new paradigm of customer-made, on-demand services calls for new approaches to the whole life cycle service management. In this article an analytical method to determine the delivered quality of experience is(More)
The basal forebrain plays important roles in arousal, learning, and memory by stimulating cortical activation characterized by rhythmic slow theta and high-frequency beta-gamma activities. Although cholinergic neurons play a significant part in these roles, other, including GABAergic, neurons appear to contribute. Using juxtacellular labeling with(More)
The circular, double-stranded 8-kb DNA genome of papillomaviruses (PVes) consists mainly of 4 large genes, E1, E2, L2, and L1. Approximately 150 papillomavirus genomes have been sequenced to date. We analyzed a representative sample of 53 PVes genomes using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and distance-based methods both on(More)
This report describes a study focused on the relationship between CGG repeat length, FMRP, mRNA levels and cognitive functioning in premutation carriers (PM) carriers of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). We studied 60 females-43 with PM and 17 with normal (N) alleles-from 25 FXS Spanish families. The Wechsler scales were administered to all subjects and new blood(More)